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Biochemestry Voca

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Organic compound an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Inorganic compound compound that is not organic compound. Some simple compounds that contain carbon are often considered inorganic
Carbohydrate(s) any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose.
Protein(s) any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms
Lipid(s) any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They include many natural oils, waxes, and steroids.
Enzyme(s) a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.
Amino acid(s) a simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group.
Simple sugars monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose, and galactose.
Disaccharide any of a class of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues.
Ribonucleic acid- RNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
Polysaccharide a carbohydrate (e.g., starch, cellulose, or glycogen) whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together.
Glycogen a substance deposited in bodily tissues as a store of carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide that forms glucose on hydrolysis
Peptide a compound consisting of two or more amino acids linked in a chain, the carboxyl group of each acid being joined to the amino group of the next by a bond of the type -OC-NH-.
Catalyst a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change
Denature destroy the characteristic properties of (a protein or other biological macromolecule) by heat, acidity, or other effects that disrupt its molecular conformation.
Hydrolysis the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
Dehydration synthesis he process of joining two molecules, or compounds, together following the removal of water.
Substrate(s) a substance or layer that underlies something, or on which some process occurs, in particular.
Nucleotide(s a substance or layer that underlies something, or on which some process occurs, in particular.
Fatty acids and glycerol Fatty acids are fairly long linear hydrocarbon chains with a carboxylic acid group at one end.
Dipeptide a peptide composed of two amino-acid residues.
Created by: 1012639