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Science Vocabulary 4

Science Words To Learn

TermDefinition
1.Organic compound Chemical compounds that contain both carbon and hydrogen.
2.Inorganic compound Chemical compounds that contain either carbon or hydrogen.
3.Carbohydrate(s) Any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose.
4. Protein(s) Any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms.
5.Lipid(s) Any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.
6. Enzyme(s) A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.
7. Amino acid(s) A simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group.
8. Simple sugars Sweet in taste and are broken down quickly in the body to release energy.
9. Disaccharide The sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.
10. Ribonucleic acid A nucleic acid that is generally single-stranded , and composed of repeating nucleotide units of ribose sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base.
11. Deoxyribonucleic acid A double-stranded nucleic acid that contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function.
12. Polysaccharide A polymer made of many saccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
13. Glycogen A branched polymer of glucose that is mainly produced in liver and muscle cells, and functions as secondary long-term energy storage in animal cells.
14. Peptide A short chain of amino acids.
15. Catalyst A substance capable of initiating or speeding up a chemical reaction.
16. Denature Process modifying the molecular structure of a protein.
17. Hydrolysis A chemical reaction in which water is used to break down a compound
18. Dehydration synthesis The process of joining two molecules, or compounds, together following the removal of water.
19. Substrate(s) A molecule acted upon by an enzyme.
20. Nucleotide(s) One of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA
21. Fatty acids and glycerol The building blocks for lipids
22. Dipeptide A compound consisting of two amino acid units joined at the amino (–NH 2) end of one and the carboxyl (–COOH) end of the other.
23. Coenzyme Nonprotein molecules although some are vitamins, particularly those that are phosphorylated derivaties of water-soluble vitamins.
24. Macromolecules A very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Created by: 1011018