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Biology Vocab Unit 6

Protein Synthesis and Mutations Unit Objectives

TermDefinition
mRNA Messenger RNA, creates a copy of DNA to bring to Ribosomes to code for proteins
Anti-Codon The opposite of the codon the mRNA brings to the Ribosome; this is on tRNA
Frameshift Frameshift mutations are when an N-base is either added or deleted, causing all of the amino acids from then on to be different.
Peptide Bond Strong bond between amino acids in proteins
Chromosomal Mutation Mutations that affect a chromosome, instead of just the DNA nucleotides- chromosomes are wound strands of DNA, and genes are sections of DNA that code for a specific thing (protein...?)
tRNA Transfer RNA, brings amino acids to the mRNA in the ribosome to be bonded together, uses its anticodon to find the right codon in the mRNA to bring the amino acid to
Triplet code Three nucleotides- 3 n-bases- like a codon, but in ALL genetic code- how your body reads it in general
Point Mutation when an n-base is switched out for a different one, which only affects that one amino acid, It often may not change it at all but may still have an effect like affecting protein structure or production by cell of the protein- change just one N-base
Protein Biomolecule that relies on shape, has amino acids with a peptide bond, coded for by DNA, created in ribosomes, finished/folded at rough er, packaged and shipped by golgi bodies
rRNA Ribosomal RNA that is part of what makes up ribosomes, the other part is proteins
Uracil Nitrogenous base found only in RNA, replaces the T of DNA
RNA holds genetic code- type of nucleic acid that is single helix, has U instead of T, and is not "deoxy-" (it has oxygen)
Enzyme a type of protein that speeds up reaction rates and is also shape specific- used in transcription and translation
Gene Mutation any change in DNA
Transcription when the DNA of a nucleus is split and RNA polymerase goes in and strings the opposite bases of one side of the helix to create an mRNA copy of the blueprint
Insertion a frameshift mutation by adding an N-base
Codon Chart a chart to read what mRNA codons code for what amino acids- first letter/N-base on the left, second on top, third on right
Ribosome Organelle that creates proteins by channeling mRNA through and being the site where tRNA brings the amino acids to be bonded
Central Dogma the path from DNA to protein- DNA {Transcription} mRNA {Translation} protein = trait
Translation When tRNA carries the amino acids to be matched up to the right codon from the tRNA anticodon onto the mRNA codon to be bonded with a peptide bond in the ribosome into a polypeptide chain to be folded later
Deletion A frameshift mutation by taking away an N-base
Gene Expression How genes are expressed for physical traits through proteins, in prokaryotes it's turning genes on and off rapidly to start and stop protein synthesis, in eukaryotes it's doing that with a large # of genes, maintain homeostasis
Cell Differentiation Cells developed into different types with special functions (red blood cell, muscle cell, etc.)
Amino Acid 20 different types; what makes up proteins and is carried on tRNA- some are hydro-philic and -phobic, which causes them to bend certain ways, creating their shape
Substitution Change just one N-base- point mutation
Codon Set of 3 N-bases in mRNA- how the body reads the code to find what amino acid is needed
Regulated controlled/managed
Created by: 100110501