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A/S Reproduction

What type of reproduction does bacteria undergo? Bacteria usually reproduce through binary fission. A cell replicates its DNA then divides into two daughter cells each with identical genetic material.
Explain vegetative reproduction. A new plant can be generated by division of the roots, stems, or leaves of a parent plant.
Explain budding and regeneration. In budding, a new organism grows out of the parent's body. In regeneration, a piece of the parent's body can develop into a new organism.
What does sexual reproduction always involve? Sexual reproduction always involves combining genetic material from two organisms to produce offspring.
How does non-conjugated reproduction work? Sex cells, gametes, are produced by a process called meiosis. The male gametes = sperm, the female gametes = ova or eggs. They fuse in fertilization, a zygote is formed. A zygote is a fertilized egg, and it has the potential to grow into a new organism.
How is fertilization possible in flowing plants? Flowering plant species go through pollination. The male stamen produces pollen containing the male gamete. Pollen is carried by wind or insect to a female pistil that contains the ovary. Flowers are an adaption to ensure that pollination occurs.
How is fertilization possible in animal species? In external fertilization, the male and female release their sperm and eggs into the surrounding environment. Fertilization then takes place. Aquatic species such as amphibians and employ this type of sexual reproduction.
What do diploid cells contain? They contain two complete sets of parental chromosomes. They're often labeled as 2N. The 2 represents the fact that for every chromosome, there are two homologous copies—one from the organism’s maternal parent and one from the organism’s paternal parent.
What do haploid cells contain? the egg and sperm cells, are haploid cells (N). They contain only a single set of chromosomes, or half the parental number. When the haploid cells of the egg and sperm come together, the resulting cell will be diploid—the combination of two haploid cells.
Explain the 2 stages of meiosis. The number of chromosomes in the parental diploid cells is reduced by half. In the end, four haploid daughter cells are produced.
During Meiosis 1, explain Prophase 1. Chromosomes condense and homologous chromosomes pair up. Chromosomes may cross over. Entire chromosomes or parts of the chromatids cross over one another and switch position.
During Meiosis 1, explain Prometaphase. 1 The nuclear envelope disappears and paired homologous chromosomes attach to spindle fibers.
During Meiosis 1, explain Metaphase 1. Paired homologous chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.
During Meiosis 1, explain Anaphase 1. Paired homologous chromosomes separate and are pulled to opposite ends of the cell.
During Meiosis 1, explain Telophase and Cytokinesis. A nuclear envelope forms around each group of chromosomes. The cytoplasm divides, forming two haploid daughter cells.
During Meiosis 2, explain Prophase 2. Chromosomes condense and the nuclear envelope begins to break down.
During Meiosis 2, explain Prometaphase 2. The nuclear envelope disappears, spindle fibers form, and the sister chromatids attach to the spindle fibers.
During Meiosis 2, explain Metaphase 2. The chromosomes line up in the center of the cell.
During Meiosis 2, explain Anaphase 2. Sister chromatids separate at the centromere and are pulled to opposite ends of the cell.
During Meiosis 2, explain Telophase and Cytokinesis. A nuclear envelope forms and the cytoplasm divides into separate cells.
What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis? Mitosis deals with cell division in somatic cells and all eukaryotic cells with 1 division and 2 daughter cells. Meiosis deals with gametes and only those that reproduce sexually with 2 divisions and 4 daughter cells.
How does spematogenesis occur? Each primary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis I, resulting in two secondary spermatocytes. These undergo meiosis II and cytokinesis. Two spermatids, are produced from each secondary spermatocyte. The spermatozoa develop into mature sperm cells.
Explain the process of oogenesis. The cell that results in the formation of an egg arises from a primary germ cell, called an oocyte, that undergoes cell division to produce a haploid cell. This haploid cell is called an ovum, or egg.
Explain how a zygote is formed during sexual reproduction. After fertilization, the sperm's chromatin unwinds in decondensation and chromatin from both the egg and sperm are surrounded by a nuclear envelope. The genomes of the N cells form a 2N cell. This is a zygote.
Explain the development of the embryo. The embryo travels toward the uterus from one cell through 2-cell to 32-cell stages to form a solid ball of cells called a morula. A cavity develops in the center called a blastula. During implantation, the blastula attaches to the wall of the uterus.
Explain the three layers that develop through gastrulation. The ectoderm will develop into the skin and nervous system. Mesoderm cells will become most of the internal structures. The endoderm will become the cells that line digestive organs, respiratory and excretory systems.
Explain the goal of somatic cell nuclear transfer. A way to manipulate reproduction and implant DNA of a somatic cell into an egg. The desired organism can then grow and develop with the newly inserted DNA.
When does non-disjunction occur? Meiosis. When chromosomes fail to separate properly during anaphase I or II, the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is imbalanced.
What is aneuploidy? Aneuploidy, a condition in which an offspring has an abnormal number of chromosomes.
What is monosomy? Monosomy is the condition in which a daughter cell is missing a chromosome or part of a chromosome from one parent.
What is trisomy? Trisomy is a condition in which a daughter cell receives an additional chromosome from one of the parent cells.
What sex-linked condition is caused by monosomy? Turner Syndrome. The resulting symptoms include incomplete development during puberty, short height, a broad chest, and infertility. Ex: A female with turner syndrome has 1 X chromosome instead of 2.
What is the normal amount of chromosomes that a male and female would posses? What would be considered an abnormality? Normal females possess two X chromosomes and normal males possess one X and one Y chromosome. Any discrepancies in these normal pairings result in sex-linked disorders among surviving offspring.
In males, what sex-linked disorder can aneuploidy cause? Explain it. Klinefelter Syndrome is a sex-linked disorder found among males. As a result of non-disjunction, males receive an extra X chromosome (XXY).
What is the most common sex-linked disorder is caused by trisomy? Down Syndrome (trisomy 21). This disorder occurs when an offspring receives an extra copy of chromosome 21. Down syndrome affects normal brain and body development in a child.
What happens when there is a trisomy on chromosome 13? Patau Syndrome. This condition results in serious eye, brain, and circulatory disorders, as well as a cleft palate.
Created by: JustEmma



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