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Comp Phys: Guest

Comparative Physiology Guest Lecture Anderson USD Fall 2018 Dr. Kenneth Renner

QuestionAnswer
What is ballistic movement? any movement where, after launch, the trajectory is dependent only on gravity, launch velocity, and launch angle
What are ballistic movements dependent on? gravity, launch velocity, and launch angle
What are some examples of ballistic movments? guns, baseball throw
True or False: Biological systems commonly use ballistic movements True
How are ballistic movements in biological systems defined? moveents that are initiated by muscle action and continue from momentum alone
What are some examples of ballistic movements in biological systems? jumping, fast reach, tongue projections
What are anurans? frogs and toads
What type of movement do anurans use for tongue projections? inertial elongation
What is inertial elongation? elongation due to inertia
What type of movement do salamanders use for tongue projections? projection of tongue skeleton
What assists salamanders with their tongue projections? hypoid apparatus and circular muscles
How does the salamander project its tongue skeleton? the circular muslces compress the posterior elongation
What do cameleons use for tongue projections? muscle projections, but the tongue skeleton stays behind
How far does the cameleon tongue typically project? about 2 body lengths (average)
What is the peak velocity of large cameleons tongue projections? 5.8 m/s
What is the peak acceleration of large cameleons tongue projections? 486 m/s^2
What is the peak power of large cameleon tongue projections? 3168 W/kg
What is power? rate of energy release
What is the average muscle capacity in vivo? 1121 W/kg
True or False: small cameleons out perform large cameleons True
What is the peak distance of tongue projection in small cameleons? 2.5 body lengths
What is the peak acceleration of tongue projection in small cameleons? 2590 m/s^2
What is the peak power of tongue projections in small cameleons? 14040 W/kg
What is the fastest motion and highest power recorded in amniotes? small cameleon tongue projections
What are the 4 parts of the chameeon feeding apparatus? entoglossus, hypoglossus, accelerator muscle, and intralingual sheath
What is the entoglossus? part of tWhat is prohe tongue skeleton of chameleon feeding apparatus
What is the hyoglossus? muscle of the chameleon feeding apparatus that is used to recoil the tongue
What is the accelerator muscle? muscle of the chameleon feeding apparatus that is responsible for the force to power tongue and restricts the elongated process
What is the intralingual sheath? part of hte chameleon feeding apparatus made of elastic tissue
What is the first step in chameleon muscle projection? the accelerator muscle constricts and becomes reduced causing elongation
In chameleon muscle projection, what happens after elongation? the intralingual sheath stretches which stores energy
In chameleon muscle projection, what happens once energy is stored up from intralingual sheath stretching? onset of projection and the intralingual sheath recoils as the accelerator muscle extends off the tapered tip of the entoglossus
What is projection powered by? elastic recoil powers the explosive performance
What is retraction powered by? muscle contraction powered
How much does the hyoglossus extend? 600% of resting length
What are muscle length changes limited by? sarcomere length
What is the maximum length change in a typical muscle? 120%
What morphology allows chameleons to extend past typical muslce lengths? perforated Z disks
How do perforated z disks help chameleons? muscles continue to contract and shorten when myosin would otherwise had it, instead when the muscles contract, the perforated z disks allow the myosin to invade adjacent sarcomeres
What are the muscles with perforated z disks called? supercontracting muscles
What are the two benefits of supercontracting muscles? allow extreme projection distances and force production over a broad range of muscles lengths
What is prey prehension? holding on to prey
What are 3 ways in which chamelions can have prey prehension? viscous adhesion, mechanical grasping, and suction
What are 2 bioinspired designs from the chameleon tongue? shooting manipulation system and flex shape gripper
What is the shooting manipulation system? firing of a magnet and catching a dropping object
What is a flex shape gripper? a gripper that can grip secuerly around any item it touches
Created by: kenzigustafson