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Science Vocabulary 3

Science Words To Learn

TermDefinition
Cytology A branch of biology that studies the structure and function of plant and animal cells.
Organelles Any of the specialized structures within a cell that perform a specific function.
Cells The basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms, the smallest unit of life.
Cytoplasm The jelly-like substance of the cell, contains all organelles and cell parts.
Plasma Membrane A biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cell Wall The outermost layer of cells in plants, bacteria, fungi, and many algae that gives shape to the cell and protects it from infection.
Chloroplasts Plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments; in plants that carry out photosynthesis
Mitochondria The powerhouses of the cell.
Nucleus An organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Inside its fully enclosed nuclear membrane, it contains the majority of the cell's genetic material.
Nucleolus The round granular structure within the nucleus of a cell, composed of proteins, DNA, and RNA, and functions primarily for the creation of ribosomes
Ribosomes A sphere-shaped structure within the cytoplasm of a cell that is composed of RNA and protein and is the site of protein synthesis.
Endoplasmic Reticulum A network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) or studded with ribosomes (rough endoplasmic reticulum) , involved in the transport of materials.
Golgi Bodies An organelle found in most eukaryotic cells, sorting and processing proteins.
Vacuoles A membrane-bound vesicle found in the cytoplasm of a cell whose function includes intracellular secretion, excretion, storage, and digestion.
Lysosomes An organelle that is surrounded by a membrane, has an acidic interior, and contains hydrolytic enzymes that break down food molecules, especially proteins and other complex molecules.
Centrioles A small, cylindrical cell organelle, seen near the nucleus in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, that divides in perpendicular fashion during mitosis.
Virus(es) A small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Diffusion (Passive Transport) A process by which an ion or molecule passes through a cell wall via a concentration gradient, or from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Osmosis The spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Active Transport The direction opposite that of diffusion, that is from an area of lower concentration to one of higher concentration,the assistance of a type of protein called a carrier protein, using energy supplied by ATP.
Phagocytosis The process by which a cell - often a phagocyte or a protist - engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
Created by: 1011018