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chapter 13

charlemagne The first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire; his name means “Charles the Great.” Charlemagne was king of France in the late eighth and early ninth centuries and was crowned emperor in 800. He is especially remembered for his encouragement of education.
papal states were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
counts officials he chose to rule parts of the empire in Charlemagnes name
navigation the process or activity of accurately ascertaining one's position and planning and following a route.
sagas long icelandic stories aboutgrat heros and events
leif eriksson Leif Eriksson was the son of Erik the Red, founder of the first European settlement on what is now called Greenland.
knights trained soldiers to defend the castle
fief land given to knights for their service
vassal anyone who accepted the fief
feudal system the system of exchanging land for services
fealty loyalty
manorial system a similar system built around large estates called manors
serfs workers legally tied to the manor on which the worked
alfred the great was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
william the conquror duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England; he defeated Harold II at the battle of Hastings in 1066 and introduced many Norman customs into England
domesday book a book that william used to create tax systems
eleanor of aquitaine powerful french duchess
magna carta a charter of liberties to which the English barons forced King John to give his assent in June 1215 at Runnymede.
parliament the governing body that makes Englands laws
hugh capet was the King of the Franks from 987 to 996. He is the founder and first king from the House of Capet. He was elected as the successor of the last Carolingian king, Louis V.
otto the great was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973
reconquista series of campaigns to retake the Iberian peninsula embarked on by christian states
piety persons level of devotion to his or her religion
pontificate the office or tenure of pope or bishop
pope gregory Vll was pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085. ... He was also at the forefront of developments in the relationship between the emperor and the papacy during the years before he became pope.
henry lV Holy Roman emperor and king of Germany (1056-1106) who struggled for power with Pope Gregory VII. Twice excommunicated, Henry appointed an antipope (1084) to crown him emperor, invaded Italy, and was dethroned by his sons
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