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Congenital Defects

Cardiac Fall

QuestionAnswer
IAS interatrial septum
IVS interventricular septum
AVS atrioventricular septum
What are the 4 IVS components? Membranous septum, inlet/AV canal septum, trabecular/muscular septum, outlet/infundibular/distal conal septum
Where does the membranous septum lie? between the anterior & septal TV leaflets and below the right & non-coronary cusps of the aortic valve
Where does inlet septum lie? inflow areas of both TV & MV
Where does the outlet septum lie? separates the LVOT from the RVOT
Where does AVS lie? separates RA from LV
How do TV & MV attach to AVS? TV attaches more inferiorly than MV
What are the 2 types of AVSDs? complete & partial
What are the 4 types of ASDs? ostium secundum, ostium primum, sinus venosus, & coronary sinus
Which is the most common type of ASD? ostium secundum
Where is ostium secundum ASD located? mid portion of IAS
Where is ostium primum ASD located? inferior portion of IAS (near MV & TV)
Where is sinus venosus ASD located? superior portion of IAS?
What does coronary sinus ASD/unroofed coronary sinus allow? communication between coronary sinus & LA
What are 4 types of VSDs? Membranous/perimembranous septum, inlet septum, trabecular/muscular septum, & outlet/supracristal septum
What is the most common VSD? membranous/perimembranous
What are perimembranous ventricular septal defects associated with? pouches or aneurysms
What are locations for muscular VSDs? central muscular, mid-muscular, apical, or marginal
Where do inlet VSDs lie? posterior to the septal leaflet of the TV
What are inlet VSDs associated with? cleft or common AV valves
Where do outlet VSDs lie? beneath the pulmonic valve
What are outlet VSD's associated with? aortic regurgitation secondary to prolapse of the RCC
What are outlet VSDs also known as? supracristal, conal septal, infundibular, subpulmonic, & subarterial
AVSDs are also known as? atrioventricular canal defects or endocardial cushion defects
Where are TV & MV attached in AVSDs? at the same level
What is the difference between a complete & partial AVSD? in complete, the AVS is absent & one large atrioventricular valve exists; partial has 2 separate valve orifices
Congenital aortic stenosis obstruction of the valve itself, either above or below; abnormal number of cusps, stiff or fused cusps; leads to left ventricular hypertrophy
Aortic Atresia/Bicuspid/Quadricuspid Aortic Valve Aortic valve absent or closes; associated with Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Congenital pulmonic stenosis obstruction of the valve itself, either above or below; abnormal number of cusps, stiff or fused cusps; leads to right ventricular hypertrophy
Pulmonary atresia pulmonary valve absent or closed;associated with VSD
Cleft Mitral Valve associated with ostium secundum ASD
Mitral Valve atresia MV absent or closed; associated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Double Orifice Mitral Valve (DOMV) mitral valve has two orifices; most commonly associated with AVSD
Ebstein's Anomoly enlarged RA
Tricuspid Valve Atresia TV absent or closed & underdeveloped RV
Patent Ductus Arteriosus Ductus arteriosus remains open
Coarctation of the aorta narrowing of the aorta
Tetralogy of Fallot perimembranous VSD, overriding aorta, pulmonic stenosis, & right ventricular hypertrophy
Transposition of Great Arteries aorta & MPA switch position
Persistent Truncus Arteriosus only one great vessel with one semilunar valve that can have 2-6 cusps
Cor Triatratum three atrial chambers
A persistent left SVC drain to and cause? coronary sinus & causes an unroofed coronary sinus
Patent Foramen Ovale foramen ovale remains open
In a PSAX view, what does the time "9-12" show? membranous VSD
In a PSAX view, what does the time "12-3" show? outlet VSD
Eisenmenger's syndrome defects that cause left to right blood flow
bicuspid aortic valve is highly related to what? coarctation of the aorta
raphe fused valves
What is a cleft MV highly related to? endocardial cushion defects
Created by: ginaliane