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Biology for HESI

What molecule is the simplest form of sugar? Monosaccharides are the simplest sugars that make up carbohydrates. They're important for cellular respiration
What type of macromolecule contains genetic info that can be passed to subsequent generations? Nucleic acids include DNA & RNA which are strands of nucleotides that contains genetic information
What's the primary unit of inheritance between generations of an organism? Genes are the primary unit of inheritance between generations of an organism
Which one of Mendel's laws theorizes that the alleles for different traits are NOT linked & can be inherited independently of one another? The Law of Independent Assortment states that the alleles for different traits are inherited independently of one another
What does an element's atomic number indicate? Protons. An element's atomic number refers to the number of protons in the element
What is a distinct characteristic of gas? Gases are easy to compress
What characteristic of a liquid allows it to have surface tension? Cohesion, it's the attraction of liquid molecules to each other
What type of solid has a symmetrical pattern of molecules within it? Crystalline solids have molecules arranged in symmetrical pattern
Which characteristic of lipids causes them to not mix with water molecules? Hydrophobic. Lipids are made up of long hydrocarbon chains
Which layer of protein structure is responsible for the sequence of amino acids? Primary. The primary structure of proteins refers to the sequence of amino acids
In which type of reaction are complex molecules broken down into smaller, simpler molecules? Catabolic. Catabolic reactions entail the breakdown of complex molecules into smaller molecules, with more energy being released at the end of the reaction
Which molecule is an essential part of all metabolic pathways? ATP. ATP is used by most organisms as a direct source of energy
What feature do plant cells have that's lacking in animal cells? Cell wall. Plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall made up of fibrous polysaccharides & proteins in addition to a phospholipid bilayer membrane
What part of the cell contains the cell's DNA? Nucleus. A cell's DNA is contained within the nucleus of the cell
Which molecule starts the citric acid cycle? Pyruvate. Before the citric acid cycle starts, glucose converts to pyruvate which is the molecule that enters the citric acid cycle
What is the one type of molecule that's used to transport electrons in anaerobic respiration? Sulfate. Sulfate and nitrate accepts electrons at the end of the electron transport chain in anaerobic respiration
Which substance is converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis? Light. Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy into chemical energy
Why is cellular reproduction essential for an organism? It makes changes to the organism's DNA
What are the string-like structures that humans carry their genetic information on called? Chromosomes. Chromosomes contain all of a human's genetic information
Name a situation when codominance of alleles occurs When both alleles of the gene are expressed equally
Which pairing represents a correct DNA base pairing? A. Thymine-guanine B. Adenine-cytosine C. Adenine-guanine D. Guanine-cytosine Guanine and cytosine pair together in DNA, as do adenine and thymine
When is mutation considered hereditary? When the sequence was present in the parent gene. Hereditary mutations are passed down from the parent gene, where the sequence alteration was already present.
Which carbohydrate consists of 1700 to 600,000 glucose units & isn't water soluble & can be stored for long periods of time? Glycogen. Glycogen is a long polymer of glucose molecules
What is a triglyceride? One glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid molecules
What is a phospholipid? Two fatty acid molecules bonded to one glycerol molecule
What are the basic macromolecules of the biological system? Lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and proteins
What are the main types of lipids? Triglycerides, phospholipids and steroids
What is the primary protein structure? A sequence of a chain of amino acids
What is the secondary protein structure? When the sequence of amino acids are linked by hydrogen bonds
What is the tertiary protein structure? When certain attractions are present between helices and pleated sheets
What is the quaternary protein structure? A protein consisting of more than one amino acid chain
What is a anabolic reaction? Simpler molecules that are combined and built up into larger, more complex molecules
What is Photosynthesis? A set of reactions that occur to convert light energy into chemical energy
What are the 2 stages of photosynthesis? Light reactions and the Calvin cycle
What is the Calvin cycle? The set of chemical reactions that take place in chloroplasts during photosynthesis
What are the 3 phases of the Calvin cycle? Carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration of the CO2 acceptor.
What is an allele? One, two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome
What is a Nucleus? It contains the DNA of the cell
What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)? A network of tubules and membranous sacs that are responsible for the metabolic and synthetic activities of the cell
What is a Mitochondrion? It's the powerhouse of the cell; maintains regular cell function and is known as the
What is the Golgi Apparatus? It's where cell products are synthesized, modified, sorted and secreted out of the cell
What are Ribosomes? They produce proteins within the cell
Created by: ledsingt
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