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APES Test 2 (2)

Competition When multiple organisms seek the same limited resource; subtle, indirect
Resource Partitioning When species divide the resources they use in common by specializing in different ways
Predation The process by which individuals of one species (the predator) hunt, capture, kill, and consume individuals of another species (the prey)
Parasitism A relationship in which one organism (the parasite) depends on another (the host) for nourishment/some other benefit while doing the host harm
Pathogens Diseases that parasites can cause in their hosts
Coevolution The process by which two or more species evolve in response to one another
Evolutionary Arms Race Hosts and parasites that become locked in a duel of escalating adaptations
Herbivory Animals feed on the tissues of plants
Mutualism A relationship in which two or more species benefit from interacting with one another
Symbiosis Physically close association
Community An assemblage of populations of organisms living in the same area at the same time
Community Ecology The scientific study of species interactions and the dynamics of communities
Trophic Level Rank in the feeding hierarchy
Food Chain A linear series of feeding relationships
Biomass A collective mass of living matter
Food Web A visual map that shows the many paths along which energy and matter flow as organisms consume one another
Keystone Species A species that has strong or wide-reaching impact far out of proportion to its abundance
Trophic Cascade Predators at high trophic levels can indirectly promote populations of organisms at low trophic levels by keeping species at intermediate trophic levels in check
Disturbance An event that has drastic impacts on environmental conditions
Resistance A community that resists change and remains stable despite disturbance
Resilience A community that changes in response to disturbance but later returns to its original state
Primary Succession Follows a disturbance so severe that no vegetation/soil life remains from the community that had occupied the site
Secondary Succession When a disturbance dramatically alters an existing community but does not destroy all life and organic matter
Pioneer Species Species that arrive first and colonize the new substrate
Regime/Phase Shift The character of the community fundamentally changes
Novel/No-Analog Communities Composed of novel mixtures of plants/animals and have no analog/precedent
Drainage Basin/Watershed The land area that funnels water to a given body of water
System A network of relationships among parts, elements, or components that interact with and influence one another through the exchange of energy, matter, or information
Lithosphere Rock/sediment beneath our feet; uppermost mantle and crust
Atmosphere Composed of the air surrounding Earth
Hydrosphere Encompasses all water in surface bodies, underground, and in the atmosphere
Biosphere Consists of all the planet's organisms and abiotic portions of the environment with which they interact
Feedback Loop Negative/positive; sometimes a system's output can serve as input to that same system
Negative Feedback Loop Output that results from a system moving in one direction acts as input that moves the system in the other direction
Dynamic Equilibrium When processes move in opposing directions at equivalent rates so that their effects balance out
Homeostasis The tendency of a system to maintain relatively constant/stable internal conditions
Positive Feedback Loop Drive the system further toward an extreme
Runoff The precipitations that flows over land and enters waterways
Airshed The geographic area that produces air pollutants likely to end up in a waterway
Eutrophication The process of nutrient over enrichment, increased production of organic matter, and subsequent ecosystem degradation
Ecosystem Consists of all organisms and nonliving entities that occur and interact in a particular area at the same time
Estuary A water body where rivers flow into the ocean, mixing freshwater with saltwater
Gross Primary Production The total amount of chemical energy produced by autotrophs
Net Primary Production The energy that remains after respiration and that is used to generate biomass (leaves, stems, roots, etc.)
Secondary Production The total biomass that heterotrophs generate by consuming autotrophs
Productivity The rate at which plants convert solar energy to biomass
Net Primary Productivity The rate at which net primary production is produced
Net Primary Production The energy/biomass that remains in an ecosystem after autotrophs have metabolized enough for their own maintenance through cellular respiration
Ecotones Areas where ecosystems meet may consist of transitional zones where elements of each ecosystem mix
Landscape Ecology Scientists study how landscape structure affects the abundance, disturbance, and interaction of organisms
Patches Spatial areas within a landscape
Mosaic A spatial configuration of patches arrayed across a landscape
Conservation Biologist Scientists who study the loss, protection, and restoration of biodiversity
Geographic Information Systems Computer software that takes multiple types of data and layers them together in a common set of geographic coordinates
Nutrient/Biogeochemical Cycles The comprehensive set of cyclical pathways by which a given nutrient moves through the environment
Residence Time The amount of time a nutrient typically remains in a given reservoir before moving to another
Flux The rate at which materials move between reservoirs
Source When a reservoir releases more materials than it accepts
Sink When a reservoir accepts more materials than it releases
Respiration The release of water vapor by plants through their leaves
Infiltration Water soaking down through soil and rock
Aquifers Underground water reservoirs; porous regions of rock and soil that hold groundwater
Groundwater Water found within the soil
Water Table Upper limit of groundwater held in an aquifer
Nitrification Converting ammonium ions first into nitrite ions, which also become available after atmospheric deposition on soils or in water or after application of nitrate-based fertilizer
Bottleneck A step that limited the flux of nitrogen out of the atmosphere and into water-soluble forms
Biodiversity The variety of life across all levels of biological organization
Species Diversity Describes the number of variety of species found in a particular area
Species Richness Number of species inhabiting an area
Evenness/relative Abundance The degree to which species in a given area differ in number of individuals
Genetic Diversity Encompasses the differences in DNA composition among individuals, and these differences provide the raw material for adaptation to local conditions
Ecosystem Diversity Refers to the number of variety of ecosystems, but biologists may also refer to the diversity of communities or habitats
Biodiversity Hotspots A region that supports an especially great number of species that are endemic, found nowhere else in the world
Created by: archergirl



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