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APES Test 2

AP Environmental Science Units 4-5

QuestionAnswer
How are the terms environmental resistance and carrying capacity related? Environmental resistance is the combination of all factors that limit population growth and the carrying capacity is the maximum population an ecosystem can sustain indefinitely. Carrying capacity is a product of environmental resistance.
How is predation different from parasitism? In predation the prey is consumed and dies whereas in parasitism the parasite may negatively affect the host but not kill it.
What type of niche do omnivores have? A broad niche
Summarize evolution The change in the genetic makeup of successive generations of a species
Keystone species have an important role on their environment by Playing a critical role in sustaining their ecosystem
Indicator Species As pollution levels in streams rise, many aquatic insects such as the mayfly quickly disappear. For this reason, many aquatic insects are studied intensively.
Keystone Species The beaver transforms its environment allowing a diverse collection of organisms to thrive that would not normally be able to survive. - sustain other life forms
Foundation Species Kelp forms beds creating a habitat for many fish and shellfish- sustain habitat
Specialist Species Agave is used to define the Chihuahua desert of Northern Mexico and the Southwestern United States
What are the mechanisms of speciation? Reproductive and geographic isolation
Endemic Species Species unique to a defined geographic location
What is an area that is likely to contain endemic species? Hawaiian Islands
Interspecific Competition Three species of grasses compete for sunlight in a grassy lawn
Predation Sea urchins prey on kelp
Parasitism Ticks attach themselves to humans
Mutualism A species of ant living in the thorns of the Acadia tree protect the tree from herbivores and feed off lipid-rich food-bodies on the tree
Commensalism Barnacles adhering to the skin of a whale that gives them food but does not affect the whales
Example of secondary succession An agricultural field that has recently been cut for hay
Density dependent population control Factors that limit population growth that have a greater effect as density increases. Ex: Red tailed hawks feeding on rabbits, parasitism, competition, disease
Characteristics shared by ecosystems that have high biodiversity Variety of species, abundant resources
Activities that result in the loss of biodiversity Deforestation, poaching, overfishing, volcanoes, forest fires
Benefits from biodiversity Greater stability from complex food web, nutrients recycles through decomposition, higher productivity from range of producers producing more biomass
Generalist species Broad niche
What is primary succession? The gradual change in species composition in an area lacking the presence of soil or organisms
How can primary succession lead to soil formation and a newly formed landscape Pioneer species such as moss and lichens will form and begin to break down soil from bedrock. After several life cycles of primitive plants, the soil quality improves until the ecosystem can sustain a variety of species and return to its climax community
Biome Regions consisting of a mosaic of patches of different communities
What makes beavers keystone species Dams make beavers keystone species because if they were removed there would be mass floods and changes in the rest of the wildlife of a river ecosystem
Created by: lopiegabby