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Lecture 10 Comp Phys

Lecture 10 Comparative Physiology USD Fall 218 Dr. Kenneth Renner

What activates phosphodiesterase? transducin
What happens when transducin activates phosphodiesterase? decreases the concentration of cGMP and closes sodium channels
in a light reaction ___ retinal -> ______ retinal cis -> trans
What happens in order for transducin to activate phosphodiesterase? 1. trans-retinol dissociates from opsin 2. opsin is activated 3. opsin activates transducin (protein) 4.transducin activates phosphodiesterase in the presence of phosphodiesterase, cGMP becomes 5' and isn't recognized by Na channels and they close
During a light reaction, what does K do? it leaks out along its concentration gradient through non gated passive channels and hyperpolzarizes the cell
Where are the non gated passive channels that K leaks out of found? found on the inner segment
What does the hyperpolzarization from leaking K do? hyperpolzarizes the cell from -40mV to -70mV and decreases NT release
Why does hyperpolzarization of the cell lead to decreased NT release? Ca channels close and stop docking sequence for exocytosis which decreases NT release
What happens once light is removed? transducin becomes in activated
How does transducin become inactivated when light is removed? by the hydrolysis of GTP
What else is deactivated once light is removed? (besides transducin) rhodopsin
What shape do most fish have? fusiform shape with eyes located on the sides of the body
What do eyes on the side do for fish? gives them a large visual field
What is the shape of the cornea for the teleost eye? flattened
What is the benefit of the flattened cornea? it decreases resistance to movement in water
What role does the cornea play in light refraction in the teleost eye? It places a small role
What is the shape of the lens in the teleost eye? spherical and large
What is the role of the lens in the teleost eye? primary source of light refraction
What is accomodation with the teleost eye? use of retractor muscle to move lens back and forth
In the teleost eye, he iris and pupil diameter is ______. fixed
Why is the iris and pupil diameter fixed in the teleost eye? because light intensity changes slowly so there is a decrease in need to alter pupillary apiture
What do some fish do instead of adjusting pupillary apiture? change pigment
True or False: Color vision is common with the teleost eye? True
What does water allow the negation of ? the need for glandular secretions to clear the eye surface
In aquatic organisms, what reflects light back to the retina? tapetum lucidum
What type of eye is used by arthropods? compound eye
How are compound eyes organized? into individual optical units called ommatidia
What does an ommatidia consist of? 2 lenses, 8 retinular cells
What do each retinular cell of the ommatidia consist of? photosensitive pigments
What are the retinular cell photosensitve pigments of the ommatidia made of? microvili called rhabdomeres
What is a rhabdomere microvilla that contain photopigments
What are retinular cells? photosensitive cells that contain photopigments
How many major types of compount eyes are there? 2
What are the two types of compound eyes? apposition eye and superposition eye
What is an apposition eye? ommatidium are optically isolated from each otherand receive light from a narrow visual field
What is the gain from apposition eyes? increase in visual acuity
What is the cost of the apposition eye? limits light gathering ability
Where are apposition eyes found? diurinal insects
What are superposition eyes? rhabdoms are separated from thelense
What do rhabdoms receive light from in superposition eyes? multiple lenses
What is the gain of superposition eyes? increase in light gathering ability
What is the cost of superposition eyes? lose visual acuity because of multiple lenses
What are skeletal muscle fibers called? myofibrils
What is the plasma membrane of muscle cells called? sarcolemma
What is the cytoplasm of muscle cells called? sarcoplasm
What is a sarcomere? repeated contractile units within the subdivisions of the myofibrils
What is the z-line? boundary of the sarcomere
Where is actin found? in the z-line
What is the H-zone? gap between the ends of the actin filaments
What is the psuedo h zone? center of the h zone where myocin doesn't have globular heads
What is the A band? contains the myocin heads in parallel
What is the I band? actin filaments but no myosin
Created by: kenzigustafson
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