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Ch. 2 Prin. of Ecol

Organisms and Their Relationships; Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem

ecology scientific study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environments
biosphere portion of the earth that supports life
biotic factors living factors in an organism's environment
abiotic factors non-living factors in an organism's environment
examples of abiotic factors sun, water, soil
levels of organization (6) organism, population, biological community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
population organisms of the same species that share the same geological location at the same time
biological community groups of interacting populations that occupy the same geological area at the same time
ecosystem a biological community and all of the abiotic factors that affect it
biome large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities
habitat an area where an organism lives
niche the role or position that an organism has in its environment
determining a niche based on how an organism meets its needs for food, shelter and reproduction
competition when more than one organism uses a resource at the same time
predation the act of one organism pursuing and consuming another organism for food
symbiosis the close relationship that exists when two or more species live together
community interactions (3) competition, predation, symbiotic relationships
types of symbiotic relationships (3) mutualism, commensalism, parasitism
mutualism a relationship between two or more species that live closely together and benefit each other
commensalism relationship in which one species is helped and the other is neither helped nor harmed
parasitism relationship where one species is helped and the other is harmed
autotroph organism that use light or chemical energy to produce their own food
heterotroph organism that gets its energy from consuming other organisms
herbivore heterotroph that only eats plants
carnivore heterotroph that only eats animals
omnivore heterotroph that eats both plants and animals
detritivore eat fragments of dead matter and return the nutrients to the soil
decomposer break down dead or decaying matter
trophic level each step in a food chain or food web
energy used per trophic level 90% of the energy is used in each trophic level and only 10% is passed to the level above it
food chain simple model showing how energy flows through an ecosystem
food web model representing the many interconnected food chains and pathways in which energy flows through a group of organisms
direction of the arrow in a food chain or food web shows the direction in which the energy is transferred
biomass total mass of living matter at each trophic level; decreases at each level
Created by: rajeckit