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Ch. 4 Population Eco

Population Ecology

population density number of organisms per unit area
dispersion the pattern of spacing of a population within an area
types of dispersion (3) random, clumping, uniform
population growth factors (6) natality, mortality, density-independent factors, density-dependent factors, immigration, emigration
natality birth rate
mortality death rate
immigration movement of organisms into a population
emigration movement of organisms out of a population
density-dependent factors biotic factors in an environment that affect size specific population
density-independent factors abiotic factors in an environment that can affect a population
examples of density-dependent factors (3) disease, competition, parasites
examples of density-independent factors (3) extreme heat/cold, major weather events, flooding/drought
population all the individuals of a species that live together in an area
exponential growth occurs when the growth rate is proportional to the size of the population
logistic growth occurs when the population’s growth slows or stops following exponential growth, reaching carrying capacity
shape of exponential growth J shaped
shape of logistic growth S shaped
carrying capacity the maximum population size that can be supported by the available resources in a given area
factors limiting growth rates (4) food supplies, build up of toxic wastes, diseases, predation
reproductive strategies number of births per reproductive cycle, age reproduction begins, life span of the organism
r-strategies (5) short life span, reproduce quickly, many offspring, little parental care, small in size
k-strategies (5) long life span, reproduce slowly, few offspring, involved parents, larger in size
r-strategy organisms insects, bacteria, rodents, weeds
k-strategy organisms apes, elephants, large cats
demography statistical study of populations and predictions of how populations will change
population growth rate percent (PGR) birth rate - death rate + migration rate divided by 10
zero population growth occurs when birth + immigration equals death + emigration
age structure number of males and females in each of 3 groups
3 age groups of age structure (3) pre-reproductive stage, reproductive stage, post-reproductive stage
demographic transition change in population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
booms and bust cyclical pattern of increase and/or decrease in populations of predator and prey
environmental resistance factors that limit the size of a population
developing country a country has is still trying to develop basic technologies, such as running water, food, shelter and established medical resources
developed country a country that has all the basic technologies plus more advanced technologies, such as advanced medical resources, quality food and shelter resources
Created by: rajeckit