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Micro

Micro Nursing

QuestionAnswer
Virus can affect All organisms
Order of virus classification Order, family, subfamily, genus, species
subunits of capsomeres Protomeres
RNA viruses II, IV, V
Repressed stage Prophage
Multiplication of animal viruses Adsorption, Penetration, uncoating, replication, assembly, release
Infection no lytic but productive Chronic
No cytopathic effects Change in antigens
Epstein-Barr virus Herpesviridae family
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy caused by Prions
Virus that affect bacterias Bacteriophage
Kaposi's sarcoma caused virus 8
RNA viruses Picornaviridae
Fully assembled virus Virion
Group VI Metaviridae, Pseudoviridae, Retroviridae
viral classification International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Baltimore Classification System
Host cell damage Cytopathic , physiological , biochemical genotoxic
morphological types of virus Helical—coiled shape, Icosahedral—capsids, Enveloped—have viral envelope, Complex.
Multiplication of bacteriophages • Adsorption • Penetration • Assembly
Multiplication of animal viruses • Adsorption • Penetration • Uncoating
Structure of subviral agents Viroids—circular ssRNA genome, no protein coat; common plant pathogens. Virusoids (satellites)—circular, ssRNA genome with ribozyme activity. Prions—proteins that become abnormally shaped,
Killing of all microorganisms Reduction or removal of biological agents
Higher resistant organism Protozoan cyst
Cleanning in a restaurant Sanitation
Simplest heat-related to sterilize metal Direct flaming
Boiling time to kill vegetative bacteria 10-15 mins
Freezing and drying to preserve microbes Lyophilization
Ionizing radiation Gamma rays, Electron beams, X rays
Zone of Inhibition Disk Diffusion test
Chlorine is an Halogen
Food preservation Pasteurization, Irradiation, Ultra high Temp. Pasteurization
Desinfection Destruction of vegetative organisms
Thermal death point Lowest Temp. microorganisms will be killed in 10 mins
Antiseptic Used specifically in living tissues
Microbicidal Agents that kill microbes
Sterilization Sterilization involves the elimination of all forms of microbial life
Comercial sterilization Commercial sterilization involves applying just enough heat to destroy the endospores
Decontamination the reduction or removal of chemical or biological agents
Organisms resistant to antibiotic Pseudomonas spp, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, hepatitis B virus, poliovirus.
Factors influencing antimicrobial effectiveness Population size, Population composition, Duration of exposure, Environment, Concentration of agent, Temperature, Organic matter
Pasteurization- High temp short time 63* for 30 mins
Ultra high temp 138*C for 1 second
Lipid synthesis inhibition not a target for antimicrobial drugs
Penetration of blood -brain barrier not used in the selection of antimicrobial drug
Bacteriostatic bacterias can no longer multiply
Synergism 2 antibiotics given at the same time to increase therapeutic effects
Mechanisms of resistance Development of defensive enzymes Increase drug elimination Change in membrane permiability
Quinolone synthetic drug
Cephalosporins 5 generations of agents
Rifampin Effective against mycobacteria
Amantadine Antiviral Agent
Candida Albicans Echinocandins effective drug
Microbicidal drug that kill pathogenic bacteria
Cross resistance resistant to similar drugs
Spectrum of activity Range of pathogen type that a drug is effective
Drug efficacy effectiveness of a drug against a microbe
Zone of inhibition Result of Disk of diffusion or Kirby baver
5 basic organisms targeted by antimicrobial drugs Inhibition of cell wall synthesis Inhibition of protein synthesis Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis Inhibition of metabolic pathways Disruption of plasma membrane
5 things considered when selecting antimicrobial drugs toxicity, Microbicidal, Readily and easily delivered to infection site, Readily soluble in body fluids,potency, Remains active in body over a period of time, Not subject to antimicrobial resistance, Has a long shelf life, Affordable/available to patients
Broad spectrum effective against a large variety of microorganisms Advantage—high probability of efficacy against unidentified pathogens. Disadvantage—will destroy normal, healthy flora
Narrow spectrum effective against a relatively small number of types of microbes. . Advantage—avoids destruction of normal flora. Disadvantage—effective on only a very specific target group.
Medium spectrum effective against some of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, but not all of them.
Possible side effects after treatment Liver and kidney damage, Digestive tract problems, Urinary tract infections, Heart damage, Nervous system damage,Drug neutralization, Allergic responses.
IgA Antibody found in body secretion
Antibody is Protein produced by plasma cell
Which cell produces antibodies Plasma cell
Interferons Provide defense against viral infection
Granulocyte Basophil
Immunity acquired from infection Naturally acquired active immunity
Substance able to raise body temp. Pyrogen
Transplantation of organ between individuals fro the same species Allograft
Rheumatoid arthritis Autoimmune disease
Second line of defense Cytokines, Phagocytosis, Fever
Lysozymes Enzyme that attack the peptidoglycan layer Present in perspiratio, secretion, saliva and tears
Delayed hypersensitivity cell mediated
B cells Responsables for antibody mediated immunity
Substance that stimulates production of antibodies Inmmunogenes
Body decrease ability to fight infection Immunosuppression
First line of defense physical and chemical barriers to prevent microbes from entering the body.
Second line of defense phagocytosis, inflammation, fever, production of interferons, and activation of the complement system.
Third line of defense cell-mediated immunity, which is controlled by T-cells, and active (humoral) immunity, which produces specific antibodies via B lymphocytes.
Type I reaction hypersensitivity is caused by an excessive response of B lymphocytes to an allergen. Symptoms runny/stuffy nose, watery eyes, conjunctivitis, asthma, hives, fever, dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms.
Autoimmune diseases Myasthenia gravis—characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junctions.
Microbial life on teeth Van Leeuwenhoek
Peptic ulcer are due to Helicobacter Pylori
Bacillary dycentery Shillegosis
E. Colli Causes 5 types of grastroenteritis
Bacillus intoxication is caused by Bacillus cereus
Common causes of infectious diarrhea in children Rotaviruses
Virus isolated from birds, cats, dogs, pigs, sheeps, cows and humans Caliciviruses
Aspergillus flavus Produce Aflatoxin a carcinogenic substance
Human pinworm lives Rectum
Gingivitis Disease restricted to the gums
Stomach flu Gastroenteritis
Botulism is caused by Clostridium Botulinum
Staphylococcal intoxication is caused by staphylococcus aureus
Thrush is caused by Candida Albican
Bacterial infection occurs when a pathogen enters the gastrointestinal tract, adheres, and multiplies. Invasion and colonization of cells.
Bacterial intoxication occurs when toxins produced by bacteria contaminate food or water, which are then introduced to the human body.
Cholera cause: Vibrio cholerae, a gram-negative curved rod. Transmission: ingestion of contaminated water or food. Symptoms: vomiting, muscle cramps, severe watery diarrhea.
Rotavirus Transmission: contaminated food or water. Prevention: vaccines are available. Treatment: fluid replacement.
Giardiasis Cause: the protozoan Giardia lamblia Transmission: contaminated water. Symptoms: malaise, nausea, weakness, weight loss, cramps, diarrhea. Treatment: metronidazole, furazolidone, tinidazole, quinacrine.
Causes of hookworm infections Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, the adult worms reach the intestine, to the villi and suck blood . Symptoms may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, cramps, anorexia, weight loss, and, in heavy infections, iron-deficient anemia
All Symptoms of endocarditis except Legs swelling
Toxic condition, multiplication of bacterias in the blood Septicemia
Microbemia Microorganism enter the circulatory system
Rheumatic fever is complicated due to Strep Throat
All are considerate zoonotic disease except Brucellosis, undulant fever, tularemia and plague Plague
Rabbit fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis
Rocky Mountain Rickettsia rickettsia
Cytomegalovirus is caused by Human herpesvirus 5
Malaria and toxoplasmosis are caused by Protozoan
Gangrene Complication of necrosis of a wound
Zoonotic Any infectious disease that can be transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans
Bacteremia when bacteria are found in the blood
Sepsis toxic condition, spread of infection
Chaga's disease caused by trypanosoma cruzi
Dry Gangrene occurs in persons with impaired peripheral blood flow
Internal gangrene (white gangrene after surgery or trauma
Wet gangrene occurs in organs lined by mucous membranes such as the mouth, lower intestinal tract, lungs, and cervix
Gas gangrene caused by bacteria that produce gas within the infected tissue. Toxins produced will cause necrosis; if untreated the condition is fatal.
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs group of febrile illnesses ranging in severity from relatively mild to life-threatening. Caused by four distinct viral families: Arenaviridae, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Flaviviridae. All VHFs characterized by fever,
Systemic mycoses fungal infections capable of affecting all internal organs.
Life cycle of Protozoas causing Malaria Malarial parasites are ingested by mosquitoes feeding on an infected human,can again be transferred to another human host during another blood meal.
Leishmaniasis Visceral leishmaniasis—serious form; fatal if untreated. Cutaneous leishmaniasis—common form; sore forms at fly-bite site, Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis—widespread skin lesions;Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis—skin ulcers that spread to the nose and mouth.
Urinary system kidneys, Ureters, Urinary bladder and urethra
UTI Bacteria Escherichia coli
Diagnosis of UTI Urine sample, testing for antibiotic susceptible
UTI of Kidney Pyelonephritis
UTI related to sexual activity Clamydia and Micoplasma
Bright's disease Glomerulonephritis
Incomplete urinary emptying and loss of estrogen levels resulting in changes of the vaginal flora. Postmenopausal women are more risk for UTI
drugs commonly used in treating simple UTIs include amoxicillin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, cefrodroxil, mecillinam, fosfomycin, and cephalosporins.
causing pyelonephritis Infection travel up the catheter from the urethra to the urinary bladder. The bacteria multiply in the bladder and may back up into the ureters and eventually into the kidneys
iNFECTION OF REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM WOMEN Vaginitis, Toxic shock, endometritis, salpingitis
Nonsexual infection in the reproductive system women Escherichia coli, Gardenella, staphilloccocus aureus
Nonsexual infection in the reproductive system men Prostatitis
Normal flora in men Sterile, no normal flora
Increases chances of vaginitis Antibiotics, Prgnancy, menopausia
Fungal Vaginitis Candida Albican
Symptoms of Prostatitis Painful urination, fever and chills, weak urine flow
Vaginal cells to determine Gardenella Clue cells
Chemical defense against bacterial infection of reproductive syst. Lysozime
Toxic shock caused by Staphyloccocus aureus
Pelvic inflammatory disease is caused by micoplasma Hominis
To prevent toxic shock Prophylactic use of antibiotics, cessation of use of tampons
Memebers of normal microflora Streptococcus, Bacteroides, Mycobacterium, Neisseria, and some Enterobacteriaceae. normal resident flora prevents potential infections.
In women of reproductive age the pH within reproductive organs is slightly acidic, preventing bacterial infections. In young girls and aging women, the pH changes and approaches the neutral range in which many of the infectious microorganisms can thrive.
Defense of reproductive system from infections normal flora, acidic pH, high salt concentrations, sphincter muscles in ducts preventing backflow, urine flow through parts of the reproductive system that wash away bacteria, enzymes such as lysozyme found in semen and cervical mucus
Gonhorrea Neisseria
"Great Imitator" Chlamydia
Lessions of syphilis Gummas
Secondary stage of syphilis 2 to 10 weeks
Lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia Trachomatis
Causative for chrancoids Haemophylus ducreyi
Donovanosis Klebiesella Granulomatis
Syphilis Sympstoms Red brown rash, in the palm of hands and soles of feet
Treatment of Balanitis Tolfnaftate
NGU Nongonococcal urethritis
Granuloma Inguinale Donovanosis
STI Protozoan Trichomoniasis
the most prevalent STI in the United States. Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Mycoplasmal, and Ureaplasmal Nongonococcal Urethritis (NGU), Chancroid, Donovanosis, and Chlamydia; chlamydia
Female symptoms of gonorrhea vaginal discharge, painful burning during urination, painful intercourse, bleeding between periods.
Male symptoms of gonorrhea white/yellow/green discharge from penis, painful urinating, swelling of testicles.
Primary stage of syphilis 10–90 days after infection; symptoms are small, red skin sores
Secondary stage of syphlis 2–10 weeks after primary; rash on palms and soles, fever, swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, muscle and joint pain, loss of patches of hair, malaise, rash on skin, mucous membranes of mouth, throat, and cervix
Latent Syphilis After secondary stage; no symptoms
Tertiary stage of syphilis Many years from onset of latent phase; symptoms are gummas (masses of tissue in various organs), memory loss, ataxia, paralysis, insanity, death
HIV stage 1 1–12 months—HIV antibodies appear, flu-like symptoms
Group 2 HIV 1–8 years—mild anemia, low white blood cell count, decrease in T-cell count, seborrheic dermatitis, shingles, hairy leukoplakia
Group 3 HIV 9–15 years—moderate anemia, low albumin and cholesterol, decrease in helper T cells, severe dermatitis, thrush, weight loss, diarrhea, fever, tuberculosis, bacterial infections, shingles
Group 4 HIV Months to years—death, usually 2 years after diagnosis in men, 12–18 months in women. Death caused by various problems; usually involves opportunistic infections, lymphoma, and wasting syndrome.
Vulvovaginal candidiasis Candida albicans. Symptom is curdlike, yellow-white or yellow-green vaginal discharge. Diagnosed by microscopic examination of culture. Treated with antifungals, including ketoconazole, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, flucytosine.
Balanitis infection of glans penis; develops into patches that cause severe itching and burning. Diagnosed by microscopic examination of sample culture. Treated with topical antifungals to include: miconazole, tolnaftate, clotrimazole.
Jock itch can affect both men and women. Organisms Tinea spp. and Epidermophyton floccosum,transmitted by direct contact. Symptoms skin rash and severe itching. samples, and culturing on selective media. Treatment involves topical antifungal medications
Congenital CMV caused by Cytomegalovirus
Fetus infected by rubella produces IgM
Antibody can cross placenta IgG
Scalded skin syndrome common in Infants
Mononucleosis Young adults
STIs in United states is more in Young Adults
One third of death in 65 years old is Infectious diseases
Infection that not recur in pregnancy Streptoccocal infections
Congenital infection is passed from mom to baby before or during birth
Impetigo Staphylococcus aureus
Mononucleosis Epstein–Barr virus
Decline in inmune system with aging is Immune senescence
Recommended to avoid toxoplasmosis Cooking meat to safe temperatures, washing fruits and vegetables, Cleaning and utensils that have contacted raw meat, poultry, or seafood or unwashed vegetables and fruits, Pregnant women avoid contact with used cat litter.
Diseases common in college campus Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Herpes, HPV, Syphilis, Hepatitis B and C, HIV
Common disease in elderly population Pneumonia, Influenza, Urinary tract infections, Skin infections,
Infant immune system the infant depends on passive antibodies received through the placenta, colostrum, and breast milk after birth. IgGs can cross the placenta; IgAs are also found in the colostrum and breast milk, along with white blood cells.
Set of guilds Community
Not free living nitrogen-fixing bacteria Rhizobium
Not found in the atmosphere Phosphorus
zone present in oceans only Abyssal zone
Marine microorganisms are present in Littoral zone
Bacillus anthracic Category A agent
Vibrio Cholerae Category B agent
6 more abundant element carbon
Nitrate is reduced to Nitrogen Denitrification
Eutrophication Phosphorus cycle
Region of earth populated by living organisms Biosphere
CO2 to organic molecules is Carbon fixation
Cholera category Bdisease
Rhizobium Nitrogen cycle
Category A agents Easily transmitted person to person High mortality rate Potential to cause panic Require special action for preparedness
Category B agents Include organisms such as E. coli , Vibrio cholerae, Rickettsia, and Cryptosporidia.
Category C primarily newly emerging infectious diseases such as the Hanta and Nipah viruses.
Winogradsky Column A soil sample is placed in a glass column along with water and enrichment compounds such as calcium carbonate and sulfate.
Spreading of infection in a new population Adoption
Population will live in urban areas in 2050 69%
Marburg virus spread by Green monkeys
Disease considered a new emerging disease Hantavirus
Reemerging disease Tuberculosis
organism group I Helicobacter pylori
disease in group II category Mumps
Protozoan emergent and reemergent disease Category I
Disease transmitted by fecal oral route Peptic Ulcer
Transmitte by Ticks Tularemia
Small changes in viral coat is an Antigenic drift
Hendra virus is transmitted by Flying foxes
"Fifth disease" is caused by Human Parvovirus B 19
Acanthamebiasis is a emerging and reemerging disease in group I
Emerging disease disease newly identified in the population or one which exists but has changed.
Reemerging disease older diseases that were previously under control but are reoccurring.
Factors playing a role in the emerging of a disease Human demographics and behavior, ecological changes, agricultural development, international travel and commerce, technology and industry, microbial adaptation and change, breakdown of public health measures, human susceptibility to infection, climate and
Group I pathogens that were newly recognized in the past 2 decades
6 priorities areas dealing with global infectious diseases International outbreak assistance, Global disease surveillance, Applied research, Application of proven public health tools, Global initiatives to reduce HIV/AIDS, deaths due to tuberculosis and malaria, Establishment of International Emerging Infections
Role of urbanization in the emerging and reemerging diseases 20. Population density in urban areas makes disease transmission easier as it allows infections that arise in isolated rural areas that previously remained isolated to spread
Created by: julietoliva