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Biology Ch. 10

TermDefinition
Cell Division Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
Asexual Reproduction Process of reproduction involving a single parent that results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
Sexual Reproduction Type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism.
Chromosome Threadlike structure of DNA and protein that contains genetic information; in eukaryotes, chromosomes are found in the nucleus; in prokaryotes, they are found in the cytoplasm.
Chromatin Substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones.
Cell Cycle Series of events in which a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells
Interphase period of the cell cycle between cell divisions.
Mitosis Part of the eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides.
Cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells.
Prophase first and longest phase of mitosis in which the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the chromosomes become viable.
Centromere Region of a chromosome where the two sister chromatids attach.
Chromatid one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicate chromosome.
Centriole Structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division.
Metaphase Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell.
Anaphase Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase Phase of mitosis in which the distinct individual chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin.
Cyclin one of a family of proteins that regulates the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells.
Growth Factor One of a group of external regulatory proteins that stimulate the growth and division of cells
Apoptosis Process of programmed cell death.
Cancer disorder in which some of the body's cells lose the ability to control growth.
Tumor Mass of rapidly dividing cells that can damage surrounding tissue.
Embryo developing stage of a multicellular organism
Differentiation Process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
Totipotent Cells that are able to develop into any type of cell found in the body (including the cells that make up the extraembryonic membranes and placenta)
Blastocyst stage of early development in mammals that consists of a hollow ball of cells
Pluripotent Cells that are capable of developing into most, but not all, of the body's cell types.
Stem Cell Unspecialized cell that can give rise to one or more types of specialized cells.
Multipotent Cell with limited potential to develop into many types of differentiated cells.
Created by: rhacker