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A&P Cell

What is the cell membrane made out of ? All living cells and many of the tiny organelles internal to cells are bounded by thin membranes. These membranes are composed primarily of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and proteins and are typically described as phospholipid bi-layers
What Are Three Things That Determine if a Molecule Will Be Able to Diffuse Across a Cell Membrane? 1) Concentration 2) Charge and Polarity 3) Molecule size
Rule of entering the cell: Some things can go right in, and some things bounce off and need a special way to get in.
Which molecules can go right in? YES: O2 (Oxygen) CO2 ( Carbon Dioxide) Fats (lipids)
NO: Water, Ions, Glucose, Amino Acids, and Larger objects will need a carrier mediated transport.
Know the meaning of Diffusion: Particles that go from a greater concentration to a lesser concentration.
Carrier Mediated Transport (2 types): Facilitated Diffusion and Active Transport.
Carrier Mediated Transport: Movement of substances across the plasma membrane by carrier proteins
Active Transport: Mediated Transport in which the substance is moving against the gradient and it REQUIRES ENERGY- Amino acids
Facilitated Diffusion: Mediated Transport in which the substance is moving down the gradient and it DOESNT REQUIRE ENERGY-Glucose
What is the name for a cell wrapping itself around you is: Phagocytosis
Endocytosis: Many molecules in our body that have relatively large structures but are key requirements for cells in ou bodies. (Proteins ex) do not pass through all membranes automatically.
Phagocytosis & Pinocytosis are similar- They both are engulfing a material.
Phagocytosis: Engulfs solid material (such as Bacteria)
Pinocytosis: Engulfs liquid material
What is an Isotonic, Hypertonic, and Hypotonic solution? Tonicity is the relative concentration of solutions that determine the direction and extent of diffusion.
Isotonic Solution: Solution in which the solute & solvent are equally distributed.
Hypertonic Solution: Solution in which there is more solute than solvent.
Hypotonic Solution: Solution in which there is more solvent than solute.
Which direction does water move? From Hypotonic to Hypertonic.
Osmosis: is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
How do different things enter the cell? How does Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and amino acids enter? Some use diffusion, some use osmosis, some facilitated diffusion, and some active transport.
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide move across the cell membrane via simple diffusion (no energy).
Glucose enters via facilitated diffusion
Amino acids enter via active transport
What is mitosis, what happens? When cells divide each daughter cell must end up with exactly the same DNA.
Where is the information required to assemble proteins correctly? DNA
What are your Biological characteristics a result of? Color of hair? Genes are your POTENTIAL, the recipe. Your REALITY is from your proteins. The proteins you've made from the Directions.
Difference between Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, Mitochondria, Lysosomes: Endoplasmic Reticulum is part of the transportation of materials where protein and lipid synthesis occurs.
The rough ER: is rough because it has Ribosomes attached to it- makes proteins for secretions (other stuff)
Smooth ER: Storage organelle.
Ribosomes: are the structures on which proteins are assembled from Amino Acids
Mitochondria: is an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur- ATP Production, Package of oxidative enzymes.
Lysosomes: are one of the key organelles involved in digestion and waste removal is the lysosome. Lysosomes are organelles that contain digestive enzymes.
They digest excess or worn out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria. Lysosomes are like the stomach of the cell
Lysosomes make apoptosis and necrosis occur. Apoptosis is when the cell programs itself to die, and Necrosis is the traumatic death of the cell.
When you oxidize glucose or any of those, what products do you end up with in addition to ATP? CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) and H2O (Water)- might get this questions without the word ATP in it.
What is sugar turned into? what are the pieces turned into? Carbon Dioxide and water.
The pieces are not changed into ATP the energy is use to make them.
What's the fuel molecules that you make in the process of burning sugar? ATP
Created by: alecamila
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