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Terms for Chapter 2

TermDefinition
Atom The smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of that element
Element A substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means; have same atomic #
Compund A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds.
Ion An atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a positive or negative charge.
Ionic Bond The attractive force between oppositely charged ions, which form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
Covalent Bond Chemical bond formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
Molecule
Hydrogen Bond
Cohesion Attraction between molecules of the same substance.
Adhesion Attraction between molecules of different substances.
Solution
Solvent
Solute
Acid Compound that donates a proton (H+) when dissolved in a solution.
Base Compound that accepts a proton (H+) when dissolved in solution.
pH
Monomer
Polymer
Carbohydrate Molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes sugars and starches.
Lipid
Fatty Acid
Portein
Amino Acid Molecule that makes up proteins; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.
Nucleic Acid
Chemical Reaction Process by which substances change into different substances through the breaking and forming of chemical bonds.
Reactant
Product
Bond Energy Amount of energy needed to break a bond between two particular atoms; or the amount of energy released when a bond forms between two particular atoms.
Equilibrium
Activation Energy Energy input necessary to initiate a chemical reaction.
Exothermic
Endothermic Chemical reaction that requires a net input of energy.
Catalyst Substance that decreases activation energy and increases reaction rate in a chemical reaction.
Enzyme Protein that catalyzes chemical reactions for organisms
Substrate