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Food Ch3


Name the 3 elements present in carbohydrates carbon , hydrogen and oxygen
Food is needed for Source of Energy Make chemicals needed for metabolic reactions for growth and repair for heat
Metabolism The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms
6 common elements Carbon(C), Hydrogen(H), Oxygen(O),Nitrogen(N), Phosphorus(P) and Sulfer(S)
5 Elements present as dissolved salts Sodium(Na), Magnesium(Mg), Chlorine(Cl), Potassium(K), and Calcium(Ca)
3 Trace Elements Iron(Fe),Copper(Cu) and Zinc(Zn)
Trace Elements Only required in tiny amounts in the diet
Biomolecules Chemicals that are made inside a living thing
Monosaccharide Carbohydrate composed of single sugar unit eg glucose
Disaccharide Carbohydrate composed of two sugar units joined together eg maltose
Polysaccharide Carbohydrate composed of many sugar units joined together eg Starch , Cellulose, Glycogen
Structural role of Carbohydrates Cellulose is used to form plant cell walls
Metabolic role of Carbohydrates Glucose broke down in respiration to release energy/ Glucose is made in photosynthesis
What are Lipids composed of Fats and oils
Name the structures of Lipids and what its made of Triglyceride - 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids Phospholipid - 1 glycerol, 2 fatty acids and 1 phosphate
Structural role of lipids Food store in plant and animals heat, insulation and protection of the organs combine with phosphorus to form phospholips and protein to form lioproteins
Metabolic role of lipids Broken down in respiration to release energy
Structure of protein Fibrous protein Globular protein
Structural role of protein Fibrous protein eg Keratin in hair and nails or myosin in muscles
Metabolic role of protein used as enzymes to control reactions Form antibodies to fight infection Some hormones are protein based and used to regulate body reactions
Vitamins Essential organic catalysts of metabolism they can be fat soluble or water soluble
Name a water soluble vitamin Vitamin C called ascorbic acid
Metabolic Role of Vitamin C Necessary for formation of connective tissue such as skin or gums Growth and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth Helping wounds to heal helping immune system to function properly
Deficiency of vitamin C disease and symptoms Poor healing of skin Bleeding under the skin Bleeding gums with loose teeth
Name a fat soluble vitamin Vitamin D
Metabolic role of vitamin D Helps absorb calcium from the intestine and therefor needed for healthy bones and tooth formation
Deficiency of vitamin D disease and symptoms Rickets in children and Osteomalacia in adults Weak,deformed bones that tend to break easily
Name 2 plant minerals Magnesium(Mg) and Calcium(Ca)
Name 2 animal minerals Iron(Fe), Calcium(Ca) and Sodium(Na)
Give the source and use of Magnesium Salts in the soil Helps form chlorophyll
Give the source and use for Calcium in plants Salts in the soil Helps cell walls attach to each other
Give a source and use for Iron Liver,Meat,Broccoli,Spinach Helps form Haemoglobin
Give and source and use for Calcium in animals Milk,Cheese,Dairy products Helps form strong bones and teeth
Give a source and use of Sodium Table Salt Regulation of osmotic balance (maintain water levels in the body)
What is water a component of Cytoplasm and body fluids
Give 2 functions of water Transport medium Solvent reaction medium Support medium movement of sperm (animals)
What does good solvent mean Able to dissolve a wide range of molecules Allows chemical reactions to take place in water in the cytoplasm and cell organelles Allows many molecules to be dissolved in water for transport in plants and animals
Name 2 biochemical reactions that water participates in Photosynthesis - used to supply hydrogen ions and electrons Respiration- formed as an end product Digestion-needed to breakdown food
What is osmosis When cells absorb large amounts of water they become swollen
Why is water a good absorber of heat Slow to heat up and slow to cool down
What is the water content in humans 75-90%
What is an Anabolic reaction and an example Use energy to convert in to larger molecules using enzymes Eg) Formation of muscle from amino acids (protein synthesis) Formation of cellulose from glucose Photosynthesis (carbon dioxide and water are used to make glucose and oxygen)
What is a Catabolic reaction and an example Release energy when a complex molecule is broken down to a simpler form using enzymes Eg) Respiration (glucose is broke down to release energy) Digestion ( food is broken down to its simpler form eg starch digested to glucose)
What does CRAP stand for Catabolic - Respiration Anabolic - Photosynthesis
Created by: eimeardoyle2014
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