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B5 Revision

Genes,Inheritance, and Selection

What are Chromosomes? Long molecules of DNA
What is a Genome? Entire genetic material of an organism
What is a Gene? A short length of a chromosome
What do genes determine and what else? Proteins and the type of protein
The production of different proteins controls what? Different characteristics like Dimples, and how organism functions
Genes can exist in Different versions, gives different form of characteristics e.g blue or brown eyes
What are differences in species called? Variation
Genotype all of the Genes and alleles
Phenotype Characteristics it displays
Organisms genes are Inherited
Environmental variations Leaves can be yellow, height
Continuous Variation No distinct categories
Discontinuous Variation Distinct Categories
Mutations Changes to the Genome, rare random changes, changes to the DNA bases
Sexual Reproduction Genetic information from 2 organisms (Father, Mother combined) to produce offspring which are genetically different
Gametes Contain half number of chromosomes, they are haploid
How many chromosomes do Haploid contain? 23
How many chromosomes do Diploid contain? 46
How are Gametes produced? Meiosis
Meiosis is.. Type of cell division, only in reproductive organs
Explain Division 1 of Meiosis (1.) Divides and DUPLICATES it's DNA, 1 each arm, X chromosome is exact copy
Explain Division 1 of Meiosis (2.) Chromosomes LINE UP in pairs at centre, one from dad and mom.
Explain Division 1 of Meiosis (3.) PAIRS PULLED APART, so new chromosome only has 1 each, SOME of dad and mom chromosomes go into new cell
Explain Division 1 of Meiosis (4.) Each new cell has MIXTURE of mom and dad chromosomes mixing up genes create genetic variation
Explain Division 2 of Meiosis (5.) Chromosomes line up again in centre , arms of chromosomes are PULLED APART
Explain Division 2 of Meiosis (6.) You get 4 HAPLOID GAMETES, each has single set of chromosomes, gametes are GENETICALLY DIFFERENT
Sex Chromosomes control... If your're male or female
How many pairs of chromosomes are there in the body? 23 pairs
What is the 23rd pair labelled? Labelled XY
Males have what Chromosomes? XY
Females have what chromosomes? XX
Lack of Y chromosomes causes.... female characteristics
Y chromosome carries gene which... Makes an embryo develop into a male
Females always.... Have 2 X chromosomes develop in a different way
Asexual reproduction involves... Mitosis
Explain how asexual reproduction is different? Only 1 parent, child genetically identical Happens by Mitosis New cell has same genetic information, it's a clone
Alleles Different versions of the same gene
Characteristics caused by recessive alleles... Appears when both alleles are recessive
Homozygous 2 same alleles for that gene (CC, cc)
Heterozygous 2 different alleles for that gene
Classification Organising living organisms into groups
Natural classification systems Use Evolutionary relationships
Natural selection increases.. Advantageous Phenotypes
Artificial Classification systems.. Use Observable Features
Evolution Change in inherited characteristics
Bacteria Can evolve and become Antibiotic-Resistant
Fossils Remains of the plants and animals
Created by: Shahed-02
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