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A&P CH9 key terms

A&P CH9 Nervous system

action potential the sequence of electrical changes when a nerve cell membrane is exposed to a stimulus that exceeds its threshold
autonomic nervous system portion of nervous system that controls the actions of the viscera
axon a nerve fiber that conducts a nerve impulse away from a neuron cell body
central nervous system (CNS) portion of nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
chromatophilic substance membranous sacs within cytoplasm of nerve cells that have ribosomes attached to their surfaces
convergence nerve impulses arriving at the same neuron
dendrite nerve fiber that transmits impulses toward a neuron cell body
divergence a spreading apart
effector a muscle or gland that responds to stimulation
facilitation subthreshold stimulation of a neuron makes it more responsive to further stimulation
ganglion a mass of neuron cell bodies, usually outside the central nervous system
meninges membranes between the bone and soft tissues of the nervous system, protects the brain and spinal cord
myelin fatty material that forms a sheath-like covering around some nerve fibers
neurilemma sheath formed from Schwann cells on the outside of some nerve fibers
neurotransmitter chemical that an axon end secretes to stimulate a muscle fiber to contract or a neuron to fire an impulse
parasympathetic nervous system portion of the autonomic nervous system that arises from the brain and sacral region of the spinal cord
peripheral nervous system (PNS) the portions of the nervous system outside the central nervous system
plexus a network of interlaced nerves or blood vessels
reflex a rapid, automatic response to a stimulus
sensory receptor a specialized structure associated with the peripheral end of a sensory neuron specific to detecting a particular sensation and triggering a nerve impulse in response, which is transmitted to the central nervous system
somatic nervous system motor pathways of peripheral nervous system that lead to the skin and skeletal muscles
sympathetic nervous system portion of the autonomic nervous system that arises from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord
synapse the junction between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another neuron