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Biology I Chapter 2

What is every physical thing-living or not- made up of? atoms
smallest basic unit of life atoms
what kind of charge do protons have? neutrons? electrons protons-positive neutrons-no charge electrons-negative
substance made up of one type of atom and cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means element
how do you identify an element by number of protons in nucleus->atomic number
where are elements organized periodic table
when is a atom most stable when its outer energy levels are filled with electrons
how do atoms become more stable by bonding with other atoms
*atoms rarely exists alone
what are atoms that have gained or lost an electron ionic bonds
if an atom gained an electron what kind of charge does it have negative
if an atom lost an electron what kind of charge does it have positive
**Positive and negative ions are attracted
*Ionic bonds are very strong chemical bonds
atoms that have become more stable by sharing one or more pair of electrons with other atoms covalent bonds
are covalent bonds weaker or stronger than ionic bonds weaker but they are still strong
two or more atoms held together by a covalent bonds molecule
what are many substances in living things made up of molecules
substances composed of atoms of two or more different elements held together in specific ratios compounds
what does water's unique properties allow they allow life to exist on Earth
polar has charged regions
nonpolar has no charged regions
forms between slightly positive hydrogen atoms and slightly negative atoms hydrogen bonds
what does life depend on hydrogen bonds
what is cohesion attraction to stick to same substances of different charges
what is adhesion ability of water to attract molecules of different substances
what makes a drop of water cohesion and surface tension
what are the 4 properties of water water molecules are very polar; water has a high specific heat; ice is less dense than water; capillary action
what is capillary action what water moves up thin tubes because of adhesion
what is 4 reasons why water is important for life water is a terrific solvent; water has a strong surface tension; water has a relatively high boiling point; is there water on other plants
why is water a terrific solvent many ions and polar molecules necessary for life can disolve in water
what does it mean that water has a high boiling point it takes a lot of heat energy for water molecules to leave their liquid form held together by cohesion
formed when one substance dissolves in another solution
dissolve other substances and present in greater amount solvent
dissolve in a solvent solute
do polar solvents dissolve polar or non-polar solutes polar
do non-polar solvents dissolve polar or non-polar solutes non-polar
what is the pH scale used to determine the % of hydrogen ions in water
what has a high Hydrogen concentration and a pH less than 7 Acids
what has a low Hydrogen concentration and a pH greater than 7 bases
what substance is neutral and has a pH of 7 water
what can pH be regulated by buffers
compounds that can bind to Hydrogen when Hydrogen concentration increases and can release Hydrogen when the Hydrogen concentration decreases buffer
what should the pH in humans stay around 6.5-7.5
if humans have too low of a pH what could that result in ulcer
change substances into different substances by breaking chemical bonds and forming new chemical bonds chemical reaction
catalysts that speed up reactions in living things enzymes
speeds up reactions catalysts
-type of protein -breaks down materials -ends in "ase" -lowers activation rate enzymes
amount of energy needed for chemical ractions activation energy
***Enzymes SPEED UP reactions and LOWER activation energy
why do enzymes have a specific shape so they fit a specific substrate
something that needs to be broken down substrate
temperature and pH can affect the shape of the enzyme which can cause enzyme to not work denaturization
why is carbon the element of life it can bond to many different elements
3 characteristics of carbon atoms 1) carbon can bond with itself or other atoms 2) ring or long chain structure 3) often binds to hydrogen atoms (hydrocarbon)
what is part of 4 main macromolecules carbon
large molecules macromolecules
what are the 4 main macromolecules carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
what are the components of macromolecules monomer- building block polymer- chain of monomers
what are carbs made of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen in a ring
what is an example of carbs glucose
what do carbs do break down carbs to release usable energy
what is the monomer of carbs monosaccharides
what is the polymer of carbs disacchardies & polysaccharides
what are lipids made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a chain
what is an example of lipids fats and oils
what do lipids do store energy and absorbation of vitamins and minerals
a phospholipid has a hydrophillic head and a hydrophobic tail
what are proteins made of carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen
what is an example of proteins enzymes
what is the monomer of proteins amino acids
what is the function of proteins perform cell functions
what is the primary structure of proteins sequence of amino acids
what is the secondary structure of proteins fold and helix
what is the teritary structure of proteins fold ontop of each other
what is the quaternary structure of proteins multiple teritray
what are nucleic acids made of carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen and a phosphate
what is an example of nucleic acids DNA and RNA
what is the monomer of nucleic acids nucleotides
what are nucleotides made of phosphate, sugar and nitrogen base
the usable form of energy for cells ATP (Adenosline Triphosphate)
when is ATP made during cellular respiration in the mitochondria
when energy is released and the bond of the second and third phosphate what does it turn into ADP
how do energy molecules and other particles go to where they need to go through the cell membrane
regulates what goes in/out of cell cell membrane
made of lipid bilayer; selectively permeable ; helps cells maintain homeostatis cell membrane
what are the 2 types of cell transport passive and active
movement of materials across cell membrane without using energy passive transport
* in any solution, solute particles (oxygen/gases) move constantly
what are the 2 types of passive transport diffusion and facilitated diffusion
particles move from high concentration to low concentration diffusion
*ultimate goal is equilibrium
concentration is balanced on both sides equilibrium
what happens once equilibrium is reached particles continue to move across in both directions
passive transport that needs help facilitated diffusion
why does water have a hard time passing through membrane hydrophobic middle
how does water move high to low
same strength isotonic
above strength in comparison hypertonic
below strength in comparison hypotonic
in a hypertonic solution what will have to the cell it will shrink
in a hypotonic solution what will happen to the cell it will swell
what does the change in water concentration create osmotic pressure
movement of water creating a force osmotic pressure
movement of particles against a concentration gradient active transport
2 types of active transport molecular & bulk
uses protein pumps to move calcium, potassium, and sodium *pumps will change shape molecular transport
moving large particles across cell membrane bulk transport
materials go into cell endocytosis
material leave the cell exocytosis
engulfs materials phagocytosis
vesicles will pinch off material pinocytosis
Created by: dancer2024
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