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Mrs. Whittington

ionic bond electrons are transferred to each other
covalent bond atoms share an electron
element pure substance made of one type of atom
ions atoms that have gained or lost electron (gain=negative charge, lose=positive).
cohesion an attraction of molecules of the same substance
adhesion attraction of molecules of diff substances
chemical reactions process of breaking chemical bonds into different substances EX: photosynthesis
enzymes can cause strawberries to rot because they are a what a catalyst that speeds up reactions in living things
an enzyme is a type of protein that breaks down materials.. white blood cells that have lysosomes... usually ends in "ase" (sugar)....lower activation energy...energy required to start a reaction.
enzymes have a specific shape for a specific substrate- something that needs to be broken down
the spot where a substrate connects with the enzyme is called the active site
temperature and ph can affect the productivity of the enzyme by changing the shape of the active site. This is called.... denaturalization
carbohydrates are made of... carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (structures area is ring shaped) its function is for the body to break down for energy.
lipids are made of... carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen (ex:oils,fats,waxes) -> chain structure -> function is to store energy and absorb minerals.
the head of a lipid is what hydrophilic
the tail of the lipid is what hydrophobic
proteins are made of what carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (ex: enzymes, keratin -> function is to perform cell functions -> monomer-made -> made of amino acids.
monomer a molecule that can be bonded with other identical molecules to form a polymer
nucleic acids made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphate carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphate (ex: DNA RNA) -> monomer-> nucleotide -> sugar phosphate nitrogen base - function is genetic code
ATP usable form of energy/ made during cellular respiration in mitochondria
energy is released when bond of.... 2nd and 3rd phosphate is broken.
cell membrane also called a plasma membrane does what regulates what goes in/out of a cell selectively permeable lipid bi-layer ( what it's made of) and helps cell maintain homeostasis
passive transport does what moves materials across cell membrane from high to low concentration
Simple diffusion- smaller particles can easily pass through
facilitates diffusion movement of particles to help w help from protein channels. (osmosis- diffusion across cell membrane using aquaporins)
Water has a hard time passing through bc of hydrophobic tails.
isotonic (solution) same strength
hypertonic above strength (high concentration)
hypotontic below strength (low)
active transport movement of particles from low concentration to high using energy (atp)
molecular transport uses protein pumps to move particles across cell membrane (sodium, potassium) -pump changes shape when contacted with energy
bulk transport movement of large particles
endocytosis moving material into cell
phagocytosis particle is engulfed (WBC)
pinocytosis particle is pinched off into vesicle
Created by: Marissa Holloway