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Biology Chapter 2

atom (2.1) smallest basic unit of matter
element (2.1) substance made of only one type of atom that cannot be broken down by any chemical means
compound (2.1) substance made of atoms of different elements that are bonded together in a particular ratio
ion (2.1) atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
ionic bond (2.1) chemical bond formed between the electrical force between oppositely charged atoms
covalent bond (2.1) chemical bond formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
molecule (2.1) two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds; not necessarily a compound
hydrogen bond (2.2) attractive between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom
cohesion (2.2) attraction between molecules and the same substance
adhesion (2.2) attraction between molecules and different substances
solution (2.2) mixture that is consistent throughout; also called a homogeneous mixture
solvent (2.2) substance in which solutes dissolve and are present in greatest concentration in a solution
solute (2.2) substance that dissolves in a solvent and is present at a lower concentration than a solvent
acid (2.2) compound that donates a proton (H') when dissolved in a solution
base (2.2) compound that accepts a proton (H') when dissolved in a solution
pH (2.2) measurement of acidity; related to free hydrogen ion concentration in solution
monomer (2.3) molecule sub unit of a polymer
polymer (2.3) large, carbon-based molecule formed by monomers
carbohydrate (2.3) molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes sugars and starches
lipid (2.3) non polar molecule composed of carbon hydrogen, and oxygen; includes fats and oils
fatty acid (2.3) hydrocarbon chain also bonded to glycerol in a liquid
protein (2.3) polymer composed of amino acid formed by peptide bonds; folds into a particular structure depending on bonds between amino acids
amino acid (2.3) molecule that makes up proteins; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
nucleic acid (2.3) molecule of nucleotide; the genetic material of organisms
chemical reaction (2.4) processes by which substances change into different substances through the breaking and forming of chemical bonds
reactant (2.4) substance that is changed by a chemical reaction
product (2.4) substance formed by a chemical reaction
bond energy (2.4) amount of energy needed to break a bond between two particular atoms; or the amount of energy released when a bond forms between two particular atoms
equilibrium (2.4) conditions in which reactants and products of a chemical reaction are formed at the same rate
activation energy (2.4) energy input necessary to initiate a chemical reaction
exothermic (2.4) chemical reaction that yields a net release of energy in the form of heat
endothermic (2.4) chemical reaction that requires a net input of energy
catalyst (2.5) substance that decrease activation energy and increases reaction rate in a chemical reaction
enzyme (2.5) protein that catalyzes chemical reactions for organisms
substrate (2.5) reactant in a chemical reaction upon which an enzyme acts
Created by: ShullM22
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