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Vocabulary #3


Synergism two hormones acting through two separate but complementary pathways, where the result becomes greater than the sum of the individual effects
Permissiveness when the action of two hormones is required to produce an effect, but only one of the two hormones initiates the response while the other hormone must be active to permit the response to occur.  
Isoforms signaling-pathway components coded by the same gene, but have different functions and are attached to different cellular loci.
Push-pull mechanism controlling a physiological process by having some agents stimulating while others inhibiting the same response. 
Homodimer a macromolecular complex by which two macromolecules, such as proteins, are attached.
cAMP Response Element Binding Protein (CREB) a transcription factor activated by cAMP that binds to CREB sequences on DNA to increase or decrease the transcription of the downstream genes.
Negative feedback reduction of an effect by the end result of that effect
Positive feedback enhancement of an effect by the end result of that effect
Summation when two hormones act through two separate signaling pathways, their combined effect may be greater than their individual effect
Reduction when two hormones compete for some shared component of their separate signaling pathways, their combined effect may be less than their individual effect.  
kinase anchoring proteins protein molecule that anchors signaling pathway components such as protein kinase A to specific locations within the cell.   
sensitivity ability of a cell to recognize and respond to a signal in proportion to the concentration of that signal 
capacity maximum response a cell is capable of achieving in response to a signal
dose-response curve a mathematical relationship between concentration of a hormone and the magnitude of a cell's response to that hormone
threshold  the lowest concentration of a hormone that can produce a measurable response.
maximum concentration when no further changes in cellular response can be detected with increased hormone concentration
threshold/sensitivity concentration of a hormone needed to produce half-maximal response (EC50)
Affinity tightness of binding of a hormone to a receptor quantified in terms of hormone concentration at which half of the receptors are occupied by the hormone. 
Spare receptors when less than 100% of receptors are occupied, but a maximum response to the hormone is detected.
receptor-mediated internalization endocytosis of signals or receptors for the purpose of destruction by proteolytic enzymes
redundancy two different hormones secreted from different sources, but having identical and additive or compensatory effects
reinforcement one hormone acting at several different locals to produce a variety of effects that reinforce each other.
cAMP phosphodiesterase breakes down cAMP
Created by: Jackline2
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