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Biology Exam 2

TermDefinition
aerobic oxygenized
anaerobic deoxygenized
substrate level phosphorylation Phosphate group is transferred to ADP from an enzyme substrate, in this case the organic molecule
electron carriers carry electrons (and energy) from one set of reactions to another
electron transport chain transfer electrons along a series of membrane-associated proteins to a final electron acceptor and in the process harness the energy released to produce ATP
oxidative phosphorylation In aerobic respiration, oxygen is the final electron acceptor, resulting in the formation of water.
oxidation loss of electrons
reduction gain of electrons
oxidation-reduction reaction chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one atom or molecule to another
electron carries act as shuttles
in aerobic respiration, glucose is oxidized
in aerobic respiration, oxygen is reduced
what does aerobic respiration produce water
in glucose, electrons are shared equally
in carbon dioxide, electrons are shared unequally
electrons are more likely to be found near the oxygen atom
first stage of cellular respiration glycolysis
second stage of cellular respiration pyruvate oxidation
third stage of cellular respiration citric acid cycle
fourth stage of cellular respiration oxidative phosphorylation
glycolysis glucose is partially broken down to make pyruvate and energy is transferred to ATP and reduced electron carriers
produced in pyruvate oxidation reduced electron carriers
released in pyruvate oxidation carbon dioxide
enters the citric acid cycle Acetyl-CoA
the acetyl group is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide
in o.p, electron carriers donate electrons to electron transport chain
glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm
the electron transport chain is made up of proteins and small molecules
cellular respiration for bacteria take place in the cytoplasm
where is the electron transport chain in bacteria plasma membrane
produced in glycolysis pyruvate
6-carbon sugar glucose
first phase of glycolysis preparatory phase
second phase of glycolysis cleavage phase
third phase of glycolysis pay off phase
what type of process is the preparatory phase endergonic
what does preparatory phase add to glucose phosphate
what is produced in the payoff phase ATP and NADH
where does pyruvate oxidation take place mitochondrial matrix
mitochondria Rod shaped organelles surrounded by a double membrane
inter membrane space Space between inner and outer membranes
mitochondrial matrix space enclosed by inner membrane
what is pyruvate converted into in pyruvate oxidation acetyl-CoA
the citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondrial matrix
produces the most energy citric acid cycle
the citric acid cycle supplies electrons to the electron transport chain
the citric acid cycle produces ATP and electron carriers
what is regenerated again at the end of the citric acid cycle? oxaloacetate
how many carbons are eliminated in the citric acid cycle 2
what are the carbons released as in the citric acid cycle carbon dioxide
some bacteria run the cycle in reverse
how many complexes make up the electron transport chain 4
Reduced coenzyme Q transfers electrons to complex 3
cytochrome c transfers electrons to complex 4
Complex IV reduces oxygen to water
Complexes I and II accept electrons
The buildup of protons in the intermembrane space results in a proton electrochemical gradient
the electron transport chain transfers electrons and pump protons
the complexes are imbedded in the mitochondrial inner membrane
each donor and accepter are a redox couple
transfer of electrons through complexes 1,3,4 are done by pumping proteins
the inner mitochondrial membrane is selectively permeable
mutualism both parties benefit
commensalism one party benefits with little to no effect on the other
parasitism one party benefits at the expense of the other
plants carry out _________ and ____________ photosynthesis and cellular respiration
animals carry out _____________ cellular respiration
endosymbiont theory Chloroplasts and mitochondria have evolved directly from bacteria that were internalized into another prokaryotic cell
symbiosis living together
mitochondrial ancestor was effective at respiration and utilizing complex chemicals
chloroplast ancestor was photosynthetic
chloroplasts are like __________ power plants solar
mitochondria are like __________ power plants coal
stroma thick fluid in the chloroplast
what does cellular respiration require oxygen
what does cellular respiration produce carbon dioxide
what type of process is photosynthesis anabolic
what type of process is cellular respiration catabolic
isomer converts glucose to fructose structure
what type of energy source is a proton gradient potential
the inner mitochondrial membrane is selectively permeable
what are the two types of gradients chemical and electrical
why does the chemical gradient take place the difference in concentration
why does the electrical gradient take place due to the difference of charge on both sides of the membrane
another name for proton gradient electrochemical gradient
proton gradients have a high concentration in the inter membrane
proton gradients have a low concentration in the mitochondrial matrix
converts energy from proton gradient to ATP synthase
ATP synthase An enzyme that couples the movement of protons through the enzyme with the synthesis of ATP.
in lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is reduced to _________ lactic acid
in ethanol fermentation, pyruvate is reduced to ____________ ethanol
Fermentation extracts energy from glucose in the absence of oxygen
why is fermentation used for anaerobic organisms or organisms that favor it over oxidative phosphorylation
The 2 major pathways of fermentation lactic acid fermentation and ethanol fermentation
lactic acid fermentation occurs in animals and bacteria
ethanol fermentation occurs in plants and fungi
fermentation yields 2 ATP
stored in animals glycogen
stored in plants starch
excess glucose is as glycogen
Fatty acids and proteins are a useful source of energy
Fatty acid molecules are rich in carbon
Beta Oxidation The process of shortening fatty acids by a series of reactions that sequentially remove two carbon units from their ends.
Beta Oxidation produces NADH and FADH2
the brain and red blood cells depend on __________ for energy glucose
what does the ATP level in a cell indicate the energy a cell has available
photic zone The surface layer of the ocean through which enough sunlight penetrates to enable photosynthesis
the source of all food we eat photosynthesis
what type of reaction is photosynthesis redox
what is synthesized during photosynthesis carbohydrates from CO2 molecules
during photosynthesis, ______ molecules are reduced CO2
water the ultimate electron donor
photosynthetic electron transport chain A series of redox reactions in which light energy absorbed by chlorophyll is used to power the movement of electrons; in oxygenic photosynthesis, the electrons ultimately come from water and the terminal electron acceptor is NADP+
ATP and NADPH energy sources needed to synthesize carbohydrates
specialized membranes where the photosynthetic electron transport takes place
where does photosynthesis take place in eukaryotes chloroplast
thylakoid membrane A highly folded membrane in the center of the chloroplast that contains light-collecting pigments and that is the site of the photosynthetic electron transport chain
where is the photosynthetic electron transport chain located thylakoid membrane
grana (singular, granum) Interlinked structures that form the thylakoid membrane
lumen n eukaryotes, the continuous interior of the endoplasmic reticulum; in plants, a fluid-filled compartment enclosed by the thylakoid membrane; generally, the interior of any tubelike structure
stroma The region surrounding the thylakoid, where carbohydrate synthesis takes place
carbohydrate synthesis takes place in the stroma
carbohydrates are broken down to make ATP
first step of the Calvin cycle in photosynthesis addition of CO2
second step of Calvin cycle in photosynthesis reduction
third step of Calvin cycle in photosynthesis regeneration
the reducing agent of the Calvin cycle (photosynthesis) NADPH
The regeneration of RuBP requires ATP
the Calvin cycle does not use sunlight ___________ directly
Calvin cycle only occurs in _______ light
visible light is absorbed by __________ chlorophyll
antenna chlorophyll molecules transfer absorbed light energy to the reaction center
endosymbiosis The process in which one cell takes up residence inside of another cell
signaling cell the source of a signaling molecule
signaling molecule The carrier of information transmitted when the signaling molecule binds to a receptor; also referred to as a ligand
receptor protein The molecule on the responding cell that binds to the signaling molecule
Responding cell The cell that receives information from the signaling molecule
quorum sensing a process by which bacteria are able to determine whether they are at low or high population density and then turn on specific genes across the entire community
Receptor Activation The “turning on” of a receptor, which often occurs when a signaling molecule binds to a receptor on a responding cell
signal transduction The process in which an extracellular molecule acts as a signal to activate a receptor, which transmits information through the cytoplasm
Response A change in cellular behavior, such as activation of enzymes or genes, following a signal
Termination In protein translation, the time at which the addition of amino acids stops and the completed polypeptide chain is released from the ribosome. In cell communication, the stopping of a signal
Termination protects the cell from overreacting
When the two cells are far apart, the signaling molecule is transported by the circulatory system
endocrine signaling takes place over long distances and often relies on the circulatory system for transport of signaling molecules, travel through bloodstream
Paracrine signaling Signaling by a molecule that travels a short distance to the nearest neighboring cell to bind its receptor and deliver its message
Growth Factor Any one of a group of small, soluble molecules, usually the signal in paracrine signaling, that affect cell growth, cell division, and changes in gene expression
Neurons nerve cells that do short distance signaling
Autocrine Signaling Signaling between different parts of a cell; the signaling cell and the responding cell are one and the same
autocrine signaling is important to multicellular organisms
cancer uses autocrine signaling for cell division
Delta protein signaling molecule
Notch receptor
Ligand Alternative term for a signaling molecule that binds with a receptor, usually a protein
Ligand-binding site The specific location on the receptor protein where a signaling molecule binds
G protein coupled receptor A receptor that couples to G proteins, which bind to the guanine nucleotides GTP and GDP
G protein A protein that binds to the guanine nucleotides GTP and GDP A second group of cell-surface receptors are themselves enzymes, which are activated when the receptor binds its ligand
Receptor Kinase A receptor that is an enzyme that adds a phosphate group to another molecule
Phosphatases An enzyme that removes a phosphate group from another molecule
First step of cell signaling receptor activation
second messenger An intermediate cytosolic signaling molecule that transmits signals from a receptor to a target within the cell. (First messengers transmit signals from outside the cell to a receptor.)
Binding affinity The tightness of the binding between the receptor and the signaling molecule
Tissue A collection of cells that work together to perform a specific function
Organ Two or more tissues that combine and function together
Cytoskeleton In Eukaryotes, an internal protein scaffold that helps cells to maintain their shape and serves as a network of tracks for movement of substances within cells
Cell junction A complex of proteins in the plasma membrane where a cell makes contact with another cell or extracellular matrix
Extracellular matrix In eukaryotes, an internal protein scaffold that helps cells to mainain their shapeand serves as a network of tracks for the movement of substances within cells
Epithelial Cells cells arranged in one or more layers
Epithelial Tissue Made up of epithelial cells
Basal Lamina A specialized form of extracellular matrix that underlies and supports all epithelial tissues
Tubulin Dimers that assemble into microfilaments
Centrosome A compact structure that is the microtubule organizing center for animal cells
Actin A protein subunit that makes up microfilaments, used by both striated and smooth muscles to contract and generate force
Dynamic Instability Cycles of shrinkage and growth into microtubules
Motor proteins Any of various proteins that are involved in intracellular transport or cause muscle contraction by moving the actin microfilaments inside muscle cells
Kinesin A motor protein similar in structure to myosin, that transports cargo toward the plus end of microtubules.
Dynein A motor protein that carries cargo away from the plasma membrane toward the minus ends of microtubules
Cilia A hairlike organelle that propels the movement of cells or substances within cells or out of the body; shorter than a flagellum
Myosin A motor protein found in cells that carries cargo to the plus ends of microfilaments and is also used by both striated and smooth muscles to contract and generate force
Integrins A transmembrane protein, present on the surface of virtually every animal cell, that enables cells to adhere to the extracellular matrix
Desmosomes A button like point of adhesion that holds the plasma membranes of adjacent cells together
Hemidesmosome A type of desmosome in which integrins are the prominent cell adhesion molecules
Karyotype arrangement of chromosomes based on shape and number
Homologous Chromosomes one gene from mom and one gene from dad
sex chromosomes chromosomes associated with sex (x and y)
Haploid 1 set of chromosomes
Diploid 2 sets of chromosomes
Polypoid 2+ sets of chromosomes
Example of a polypoid plants
sister chromatids 2 copies of a chromosome
How are sister chromatids produced? replication
Centromere holds sister chromatids together
prophase chromosomes condense
pro metaphase attach chromosomes to centromeres
mitotic spindle separates daughter cells
kinetochores site of spindle fiber attachment
metaphase chromosomes align
anaphase sister chromatids separate (46 chromosomes arrive)
telophase 2 new nuclei prepare for cell division
cytokinesis contractile ring pulled into 2
what drives cytokinesis Ftsz
contractile ring forms against inner cell membrane
meiotic cell division 2 rounds of nuclear division
chiasma crossing over
crossover breakage and reunion of non sister chromatids
female cytoplasmic division divided unequally, cytoplasm distributed
male cytoplasmic division divided equally, cytoplasm eliminated
non-identical daughter cells gametes, sperm, eggs
genome all the cells DNA
telomeres chromosome ends
histone charge positive
DNA charge negative
template strand parental strand synthesizes daughter strand
daughter strand synthesized from parent strand
DNA duplex newly synthesized strand and leftover strand
semiconservative replication DNA duplex synthesizes new daughter strand
replication fork DNA separates as DNA duplex unwinds
leading strand synthesized as long continuous polymer
lagging strand new piece of DNA initiated at intervals
Okazaki fragments small lagging pieces
RNA primase synthesizes RNA
DNA ligase used to close a DNA strand
Topoisomerase II breaks DNA double helix
Helicase unwinds double parental helix
origin of replication where DNA synthesis is initiated
replication bubble opening of DNA duplex
telomerase enzyme containing rNA
stem cells undergo mitotic division
Created by: Kacie25