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A&P CH3 key terms

A&P CH3 Cells

TermDefinition
active transport process that requires an expenditure of energy to move a substance across a cell membrane, usually moved against the concentration gradient
apoptosis the death of cells that occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development.
cell membrane the selectively permeable outer boundary of a cell consisting of a phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins, plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane
centrosome cellular organelle consisting of two centrioles
chromosome rod-like structure that condenses from chromatin in a cell’s nucleus during mitosis
cytoplasm the contents of a cell, excluding the nucleus and cell membrane
cytoskeleton a microscopic network of protein filaments and tubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells, giving them shape and coherence
differentiation cell specialization
diffusion random movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration toward one of lower concentration
endocytosis process by which a cell membrane envelops a substance and draws it into the cell in a vesicle
endoplasmic reticulum organelle composed of a system of connected membranous tubules and vesicles along which protein is synthesized
equilibrium a state of balance between two opposing forces
exocytosis transport of substances out of a cell in vesicles
facilitated diffusion diffusion in which carrier molecules transport substances across membranes from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
filtration movement of material through a membrane as a result of hydrostatic pressure
Golgi apparatus an organelle that prepares cellular products for secretion
lysosome organelle that contains digestive enzymes
mitochondrion organelle housing enzymes that catalyze reactions of aerobic respiration
mitosis diffusion of a somatic cell to form two genetically identical cells
nucleolus a small structure within the cell nucleus that contains RNA and proteins
nucleus a cellular organelle enclosed by a double-layered, porous membrane and containing DNA; the dense core of an atom composed of protons and neutrons
organelle a part of a cell that performs a specialized function
osmosis diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane in response to a concentration gradient
phagocytosis process by which a cell engulfs and digests solid substances
pinocytosis process by which a cell engulfs droplets of fluids from its surroundings
ribosome organelle composed of RNA and protein that is a structural support for protein synthesis
selectively permeable a membrane that allows some molecules through but not others; semipermeable
vesicle membranous cytoplasmic sac formed by infolding of the cell membrane
 



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