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Chpt 3-Cell Biology

Chapter 3: The Macromolecules of the Cell USDFall2018 Dr. Karen Koster

QuestionAnswer
What is a nucleic acid? macromolyculethat is the polymer of nucleotides
What is the function of a nucleic acid? Storing, transmitting, and expressing genetic information
Are nucleic acids linear or branched? linear
What are the two types of nucelic acids? deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid
What are DNA and RNA? nucleic acids made of 5 carbon sugar
What is the difference between the structure of DNA ad RNA nucleic acid? Ribose has an extra hydroxyl on the 2' Carbon
What is the monomer of nucleic acids? Nucleotides
What do nucleotides consist of ? 5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing aromatic base
How many rings do the purines have? 2
How many rings do the pyrimadines have? 1
What are the purines? Adenosine and Guanine
What are the pyrimadines? Cytosine, Uracil, Thyamine
How do thyamine and uracil differ structurally? The Thyamine has an extra methyl group
What is a nucleoside? A nucleoside is a nucleotide without the phosphate group, it has the 5 carbon sugar and the nitrogen containing aromatic base
What is another term for nucleotide? Nucleoside monophosphate
What is the role of a nucleotide? (2) monomeric unit of nucleic acids intermediate in various energy-transferring reactions
How is the phosphate group bonded to the 5 carbon sugar? through a phosphoester bond
Where is the phosphate group bonded on the 5 carbon sugar ? it is bonded to the 5' carbon
What is a phosphodiester bridge? it is the linkage of a phosphate to two adjacent nucelotides
How is a phosphodiester bridge linked to the nucleotides? they are attached to the 5' carbon of one nucleotide and the 3' carbon of the other nucleotide
What is a polynucleotide? multiple nucleotides bonded together with the phosphate groups
What functional groups allow the based to hydrogen bond? the carbonyl and nitrogen groups
A DNA molecule is a ________-______ helix. Double-stranded
Double helix of DNA consists of two ___________________ of DNA twisted together. complementary chains
Is DNA right handed or left handed? right handed
What letter is DNA? B
What charge do phosphate groups carry? negative
Sugars of DNA have _______ ________ groups. polar hydroxyl
Are the nitrogen bases hydrophobic or hydrophilic? hydrophobic
Where are the nitrogen bases orientated? inward away from water
What stabilizes the structure of DNA? hydrogen bonding
How are the two strands of DNA orientated with eachother? antiparallel and complementary
What is a polysaccharide? long-chain polymer of sugar and sugar derivatives
What is the monomer orientation of polysaccharides? of a single monomer or alternating monomers
What is the primary role of polysaccharides? energy storage
What is the monomer of polysaccharides? Monosaccharides
What are the two types of sugars? aldosugars and ketosugars
Where is the carbonyl located on the aldosugars? terminal carbon (edge carbon)
Where is the carbonyl located on the ketosugar? internal caronyl (carbon farther down the chain
What is the general formula of sugars? CnH2nOn
What coined the term carbohydrates? the general formula and they were thought to be hydrates of carbon
What is the numbering system of monosaccharides? beginiing with the more xidized end of the molecule or the end closest to the carbonyl
How does glucose exist? in a dynammic equilibriym between the linear and ring form
What is the ring form of glucose? pyranose
What is a pyranose ring? five carbon atoms and 1 oxygen atom
What is the predominat structure of glucose? ring form because its mor eenergetically stable than the linear form
What is a disaccharide? long chain polysaccharide
What makes up a disaccharide? two monosaccharide unites linked together
What are 3 examples of disaccharides? maltose,lactose,sucrose
What makes up maltose? two glucose
What makes up lactose? glucose and galactose
What makes up sucrose? glucose and fructose
What makes up fructose? five member ring
What is the frucosse ring called? furanose
What other rings are considered furanose rings? ribose and deoxyribose
How are disaccharides formed? Condensation reaction
What is a glycosidic bond? bond between two monosaccharides
What are the two types of polysaccharides? Storage and structural
What are the examples of storage polysaccharides? starch and glycogen
What is the bond of storage polysaccharides? alpha glycosidic bonds
What are thte examples of storage polysaccharides? Cellulose and chitin
What is the bond of structral polysaccharides? beta glycosidic bonds
Why are lipids not always thought of as macromolecules? they aren't linear
Created by: kenzigustafson