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AP Biology: 44 - 47

Twelfth Edition AP Biology chapter 44 - 47

Ecology Study of how organisms interact with each other & their environment
Habitat Place where an organism lives
Population Group of organisms of the same species in a certain area
Community Species interacting with one another within the same environment
Ecosystem The biotic community and abiotic environment. Characterized by flow of energy charts.
Biosphere Zone of earth where all living organisms are found
Demography Statistical study of populations
Population Density The number of individuals living in a certain area
Population Distribution The pattern of dispersal of individuals living in a certain area
Resource Abiotic and biotic components that support or are needed by living organisms
Limiting Factor resource or environmental condition that restricts the population and distribution of an organism
Cohort Group of individuals that have a statistical factor in common, I.E. year of birth
Survivorship Probability of newborn individuals of a cohort surviving
Survivorship Curves Show the number of indifiduals of a cohort that are still living over time
Exponential Growth A large increase in population over time
Carrying Capacity (K) Largest number of organisms that can live in a specific area
Density-independent Factor Abiot factor, such as fire or flooding, affecting population size
Density-dependent Factor Biotic factor, such as disease or competition, affecting population size
R-selection High reproductive rate with little / no attention given to offspring survival
K-selection Production of a few offsping with much attention given to offspring's survival
Doubling time Number of years it takes for a population to double in size
Zero Population growth Number of offspring being born evening out the rate of deaths
Species Diversity Variety of species that make up a community
Island biogeography model Biodiversity on an island is dependent on its distance from mainland
Niche Animal's specific role it plays in the community, with its habitat and other organisms
Symbiosis Relationship that occurs when two different species live together in a unique way
Parasitism Relationship where the parasite benefits at the detriment of its host
Commensalism Relationship where one species benefits at no cost, or benefit, of the other
Mutualism Relationship where both species benefit
Primary Succession Formation of an ecosystem where it was previously uninhabited; Volcanic Eruptions
Secondary Succession Gradual replacement of communities after a disturbance; Forest regrowing after fire
Pioneer Species Early colonizer of a formally barren land, Primary Succession
Autotrophs Organism that can capture energy and sythesize inorganic nutrients
Producers Photosynthetic organisms; Grass, Algae.
Heterotrophs Organism that cannot capture energy and sythesize inorganic nutrients, must eat organic food
Consumers Organism that feeds on another. Primary consumers eat plants, Secondary eat animals.
Herbivores Plant eater
Carnivores Consumer that eats other animals
Omnivores Organism that eats both plants & animals
Detrivores Organism that eats dead stuff
Decomposers Organisms (Usually bacteria or fungi) that break down organic matter
Trophic level Feeding level of one or more populations in a food web
Biomass The number of organisms multiplied by their weight
Biogeochemical Cycles Circulation pathway of elements such as carbon and nitrogen in biotic communities
Water Cycle Circulation of water from the ocean, to the atmosphere, to land, and then back again
Greenhouse gases Gases in atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, that cannot breach the Ozone layer
Global Warming Predicted increase in the Earth's temperature due to, mostly, human activities
Climate Change Recent changes in Earth's climate; including Global Warming
Eutrophication Enrichment of water by inorganic nutrients used by phytoplankton.
Nitrogen Fixation Process where free atmospheric nitrogen is converted by bacteria into Nitrate
Nitrification Process by which nitrogen is oxidized by bacteria, called Dentrification
Dentrification Conversion of nitrate to nitrogen by bacteria
Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis, Decomposition, and Respiration is used to cycle Carbon between major reservoirs
Phosphorous Cycle Biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of phosphorus through the biosphere
Endangered Species A species in imminent danger of extinction
Threatened species A species that could become endangered
What's the value of biodiversity Direct, Medicinal, Agricultural, Consumptive, Indirect
Habitat loss Destruction of natural areas; main reason for extinction
Exotic (Invasive) Species Nonnative species
Keystone Species Plant / Animal that plays a unique & crucial role in an ecosystem
Climate Prevailing weather conditions in a particular region
Topography Physical features of land
Biome Particular mix of plants & animals that are adapted to living in specific environmental conditions
Tundra Characterized as being cold and dark, with long winters and short summers. Has Permafrost.
Coniferous Forests Long, cold, snowy winters with warm summers. Pine trees. Houses Tiaga and Temperate Rainforests
Tropical Rainforests Always warm or hot, plently of rainfall, poor soil. Epiphytes: Plants that grow on others, with roots.
Shrublands Dry summers, plants are waxy so fire is often. Houses Chaparral, which is in California.
Grasslands Rainfall, but not enough to support trees. Like shrublands, but better
Savannas House Grasslands which are, by fact, the best biome. Mostly in America and some of asia. Bison.
Deserts Hot days and freezing nights, mostly because of no cloud cover. Little rain. Don't live here.
Wetlands House Marshes, Swamps, and Bogs. Nutrient poor. Cool plants like Venus Flytraps.
Lakes Bodies of fresh water. Eutrophication proccesses occur here.
What're the Life Zones? Littoral, Benthic, Limnetic, Profundal.
Phytoplankton Photosynthesizing algae that act as base producers in lakes
Zooplankton Tiny, feed on Phytoplankton
Estuary Portion where fresh water and salt water meet and mix
Intertidal zone Region of shoreline that lies between high and low tide.
Created by: CommanderJonno
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