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Biology Ch. 2

TermDefinition
Atom The basic unit of matter
Nucleus The center of an atom; which contains the protons and neutrons.
Electron Negatively charged particle; located in the space surrounding the nucleus.
Element Pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom.
Isotope One of several forms of a single element, which contains the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Compound Substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions.
Ionic Bond Type of bond between atoms in which one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
Ion Atom that has a positive or negative charge.
Covalent Bond Type of bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared.
Molecule Smallest unit of most compounds that displays all the properties of that compound.
van der Waals forces Slight attraction that develops between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules.
Hydrogen Bond Weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom.
Cohesion Force of attraction between molecules of the same substance - force of attraction allowing molecules to stick to other molecules of the same substance
Adhesion Force of attraction between different kinds of molecules - force of attraction allowing a molecule to stick to something else.
Mixture Material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined. Each compound retains its own chemical properties.
Solution Type of mixture in which all the components are evenly distributed.
Solute Substance that is dissolved in solution.
Solvent Substance that does the dissolving in a solution.
Suspension Mixture of water and nondissolved material.
pH Scale Scale with values of 0 to 14, used to measure the concentration of H+ ions in a solution; a pH of 0 to 7 is acidic, a pH of 7 is neutral, and a pH of 7 to 14 is basic.
Acid Compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; a solution with a pH of less than 7.
Base Compound that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution; a solution with a pH of more than 7.
Buffer Compound that prevents sharp, sudden changes in pH
Monomer Small chemical unit that makes up a polymer.
Polymer Molecules composed of many monomers; makes up macromolecules.
Carbohydrate Compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; type of nutrient that is the major source of energy for the body.
Monosaccharide Simple sugar molecule.
Lipid Macromolecule made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes.
Nucleotide Subunit of which nucleic acids are composed; made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base - basic building block/monomer of all nucleic acids.
Protein Macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair.
Amino Acid Compound with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end. Building block/monomer of proteins.
Chemical Reaction Process that changes, or transforms, one set of chemicals into another. Mass and energy must be conserved.
Reactant Elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
Product Elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
Activation Energy Required energy to start/begin a chemical reaction
Catalyst Substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction.
Enzyme Proteins that act as a biological catalyst - speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells.
Substrate Reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
Created by: rhacker