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BIO201 - EXAM 1

Overview of Anatomy & Physiology

What is Anatomy? study of structure of body parts, what they look like, where they are
What is gross or macroscopic? able to see with eyes
What is microscopic? need a microscope to see
What is Physiology? study of the function and how things work
What is definition of regional? (Gross Anatomy) all structures in one part of the body (such as the abdomen or leg)
What is the definition of systematic? (Gross Anatomy) gross anatomy of the bod studied by system - ex: circulatory and/or respiratory system
Cytology? study of cell
Histology? study of tissues
Embryology? study of developmental changes before birth
Pathological Anatomy ? study of structural changes caused by diseases
Radiographic Anatomy? study of internal structures visualized by specialized scanning procedures
Physiology? -considers operations of specific organ systems -renal = kidney function -neurophysiology = nervous system -cardiovascular = operation of heart and blood vessels -functions of the body, cellular or molecular level
Principle of Complementarity? -function always reflects structure -form follows funtion
What are the ways to examine the structure of the human body? 1. inspection = seeing/eyesight 2. palpation = touching/feeling 3. auscultation = listen 4. percussion = tapping
Exploratory Surgery? opening body & looking inside
Medical Imaging? viewing inside the body without surgery - ex: radiology
Ultrastructure? molecular detail seen in electron microscope
Subdiscipline - neurophysiology Neurophysiology - study of nervous system
Comparative Physiology? -limitation on human experimentations -study of different species to learn about bodily function Examples --> animal surgery, animal drug tests
"Father of Medicine" Hippocrates = Greek physician *natural over supernatural*
Aristotle -one of the first philosophers to write about anatomy and physiology -believed that diseases had either supernatural causes or physical causes - believed that complex structures are built from simpler parts
SUPERNATURAL causes of disease theologi -- physician
NATURAL causes for disease physiologi -- physiology
Claudius Galen -physician to Roman Gladiators -animal dissections; cadavers banned -method od discovery
Avicenna (Ibn Sina) -The Canon of Medicine -Galen of Islam
Andreas Vesalius -taught anatomy in Italy -barber did cutting
Robert Hooke Microscope; non-living things -housing>cell>little chamber
Antony van Leeuwenhock Microscope; living things - ex: blood, sperm
What 3 Germans are associated with The Cell Theory? 1) Schleiden 2) Schwann - animals 3) Virchow - life made of cells
What is THE CELL THEORY? 1) living things made of cells 2) cells basic unit 3) cells - preexisting cells
Francis Bacon Inductive Method = making lots of observations until one becomes confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them
Hypothetico-Deductive Mthod consistent with what you already know -more physiological knowledge gained by this method -asks questions, forms hypothosis
Scientific Method 1) influenced by sample size 2) does need to be control - placebo in control group
Doublw-blind Study researcher doesn't give people in study indication of whats going on *blank-placebo
Describe process/connection of hypothesis, theory, and law HYPOTHESIS = testable idea, capable of being proven > hypothesis well proven = THEORY > theories universally proven - LAW
Evolution change in genetic composition of population of organisms
Natural Selection may give edge or disadvantage
Level of Structural Organization os Hierarchy
Subdicipline - endocrinology Physiology of hormones
Subdicipline - pathophysiology mechanism of disease
Created by: Ashmess
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