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Lecture 2: Comp Phys

Comparative Physiology USD Fall 2018 Dr. Renner

What is the most abundant substance in cells? Water
What allows physiological processes to occur? Water being the medium in cells
Where is water not found in the body? Tooth enamal and bones
What % of an organism consists of water? 65%-75%
What is the first important property of water in relation to CO2? Water has is good solvent and functions as a suspension medium. Ex: Co2-> a high percent is carried in blood as a dissolved gas : H2) also carries nutrients into cells and wastes out
What is the second important property of water in relation to chemical reactions? Participates in a wide range of chemical reactions such as hydrolysis and condensation/dehydration reactions
What is hydrolysis? A breakdown reaction of water; a disaccharide with water in the presence of an enzyme that consumes 2 water molecules to for 2 monosharrides
What is condensation/dehydration reaction? Synthesis reaction of water; two monosaccharides in the presence of an enzyme react to form a dissacharide and water
Condensation and hydrolysis are _______ reactions. Reverse
What are two properties of water that allows for slow absorption and release of heat? High heat of vaporization and high specific heat
What is heat of vaporization? The amount of heat required to convert a liquid into a gas
What does high heat of vaporization mean for water? It takes a large amount of heat to vaporize water
What is specific heat? Amount o heat required to raise 1 gram of a molecule 1 degree Celsius
What does high specific heat mean for water? A large amount of heat is required to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree celsisum and it also requires the loss of a large amount of heat to decrease the temperature of water
What is the fourth important property of water? functions as a lubricant and is the major component of mucus
Give two examples of water functioning as a lubicant in the body? Joints and organs sliding past eachother
Chemically, what is the most importnat feature of water? The presene of polar covalent bonds
What do polar covalent bonds do for water? Allow for the formation of hydrogen bonds
Explain polar covalent bonding Oxygen is highly electronegative so it tries to pull an electron from the hydrogen which creates a dipole. The oxygen then maintains a partial negative charge while the hydrogen maintains a partial positive charge
What causes the 104 degree bond angle of water? The partial positive charges on Hydrogen (like repels like) that has resulted from the electronegativety of oxygen and the creation of the dipole
What are positively charged ions called? Cation
What are negatively charged ions called? Anions
What are dipole-dipole interactions? Weak interactions that form from the interaction between multiple polar molecules
Dipole-dipole interactions are _____ alone, but _____ together. weak, strong
What generates water's solvent properties? dipole-dipole interactions
Water has a _____ dielectric constant? high
What does dieletric constant mean? Property of a liquid as a whole that reflects the ability of the medium to decrease the attraction of oppositely charged particles to each other
What is Coulomb's Law? Magnitude of the electrostatic force of two charged molecules is proportional to the product of the magnitude of the distance between them. i.e: force is proportional to the product of 2 particles and inversely proportional to the distance between the two
What is the equation for Coulomb's law? F=(q1*q2)/(ed^2) F=force q=respective charged particles e=dielectric constant d=distance particles are separated
Force of attration or repulsion of charge swill be ______ related to the dielectric constant. Inversely
What does a large dielectric constant mean? the smaller the force of attraction os between oppositely charged particles
What is the dielectric constant of most organic solvents? 2-10
What is the dielectric constant of alcohol? 20-35
What is the dielectric constant of water? 78.54
What is the definition of a dielectric constant? Ratio of work to separte two opposiely charged particles a given distance in a vacuum related to work requried to separte them in a liquid
What causes a high dielectric constant? dipolar nature
Why does dipolar nature cause a high dielectric constant? Unequal distribution of electrons cause positively charged ions are attracted towards oxygen and the negatively charged ions are attracted to hydrogen. This creates hydration around the ions that separates them from ions of the opposite charges
Water separates ions by _____the electrostatic forces between them. decreasing
Dielectric constant is a property of a _____. liquid
Dipole moment is a property of ______. Individual molecules
What is a hydration number? Number of water molecules associated with a given ion; usually a loose association
What is another term for hydration number interactions/association? ion-dipole force of attraction
Small, highly charged cations have a ______ hydration number. large
Anions have a ______ hydration number. small
What causes hydrogen bonding? attraction betweeen the dipole of oxygen on one water molecule to the dipole of hydrogen from another water molecule
Individual hydrogen bond are relatively _____. weak
What property gives water a high specific heat and high heat of vaporization? The hydrogen bonds, which are weak individulaly but strong collectively and water forms multiple
What is the most common solvent for Molarity (M)? water
What is the molecular weight of glucose? 180g
How do you make 1 M solution? Add 1 mole (6.02 x 10^23 molecules) of your solute then bring the toal volume to 1L.
______ will lead to a volume of exactly 1 L. Molarity (M)
What is the unit of Molarity (M)? moles of solute/liter of solvent
How many kilograms in 1 L of water? 1 Kg
How do you create one molal (m) solution? Fill volume to 1 L then add 1 mole of solution
______ will lead to the volume being of 1 L. Molality (m)
What is the unit of molality (m)? mole/kilogram solvent
What are molality and osmolality used for? The study of body fluids and renal function
Why are molality and osmolality used to study body fluids and renal functions? These measures are independent of solution temerature and independent of the volume occupied by the solutes in a solution
What does osolality refer to? Moles of particles/kg solvent
What do covalent bonds (such as glucose) dissolve as? 1 molecule =1 particle (they don't disapate into separate particles)
1m solution of glucose equals _____. 1 osmolar
What do ionic bonds (such as NaCl) dissolve as? 1 mole+ 1 particle Na+ and 1 particle Cl-
1m solution of NaCl equals _____. 2 osmolar
What is an ideal solute? one that doesn't dissociate
What are some examples of ideal solutes? nonelectrolytes such as glucose and other sugars
What is the colligative property of water? In the case of ideal solutes, the change in the properties of the solution induced by the addition of 1 mole solute to 1 liter water are standard. i.e. the properties are set properties that don't change with the ratio of solvent/solute
What are the colligative properties of water at 760 mmHg? make solution decrease freezing point 1.86 degrees Celcius and increase the boiling point 0.54 degrees Celcius
Why do electrolytes not have set colligative properties? the electrolytes dissociate to varying degrees in the solution
Electrolytes and ______ deviate from ideal solute conditions. ionic substances
What do [H+] and [OH-} dissociate to (in a rare even in water)? 1x10^-7M and 1X10^-7M
What is the ion product of concentrations equal to? 1x10^-14 M
What is the basis for the pH scale? pH =-log10[H+]
Higher concentrations of [H+] ______the pH. decreases
Lower concentrations of [H+]_____ the pH. increases
What does a pH larger than 7 mean? More basic
What does a pH smaller than 7 mean? More acidic
What does a pH of 7 mean? Neutral (closer to the human body pH)
What concentration exponent expresses the pH? [H+] exponent
What yields [H+]? acids
What yields [OH-]? bases
When are [H+] and [OH-] yielded? when they're ionzed. i.e: placed in a solution
What is termed electrolytes? Production of ions in solution that allows electrical conduction
What is the dissociation of strong electrolytes? Virtually complete dissociation
What is hte dissociation of weak electrolytes? partial dissociation/ionization
In biological systems, acids and bases are _______ electrolytes. Weak
What are some common biological acids? protonated amino grous (-NH+3) and carboxyl groups (-COOH)
If the substance donates a proton, it is an ______. acid
If it accepts a proton, it is a _____. base
What does the equilibrium equation of conjugate acid/base pairs explain? -That equilibrium concentrations of conjugate acid/base pair depnds only on the [H+] or pH of the system. -pH of a sollution depends on the ratio of the equilibrium concentration of conjugate acid/base pairs
Why care about equilibrium of conjugate acid/base pairs? 1. All cells and organisms consist of equilibrium mixtures of weak acids and conjugate bases (altering pH can have major impact on ionic concentrations) 2. Required to understand buffers which serve to prevent major pH shifts and ionized forms
Define buffers conjugate acid base/base pair that prevents or minimizes changes in pH with the addition of small amounts of acid or basic substances
Explain the titration curve (in relation to buffers)? shaped like a stretched N, as you add the buffer you are slowly increasing the pH. Before the buffering region the acid is in excess, and after the buffering region the base is in excess (nolonger functions as a buffer)
What acts as a stress in a buffer system? The addition of base (OH-) because it reacts with H+ to form water
What increases the pH of the buffer system? the depletion of H+ (HA)
What happens when you add acid in a buffer system? The base reacts with the H+ and the equilibrium shifts to the acid
What happens when you add base in a buffer system? The acid reacts with the OH- and the equilibrium shifts to the base
What is an example of a biological buffer system? CO2 and carbonic acid hyperventilation CO2+H2O<->H2CO3<->H++HCO3- H2CO3 carbonic acid (weak acid) and HCO3- bicarbonate (conjugate base)
What equation can be used to calculate pH for varying concentrations of an acid/base pair? Henderson-Hasselbalch
What is hte Henderson-Hasselbalch equation? pH=pKa + log[conjugate base]/[conjugate acid]
What is the importance of buffers? Maintaining homeostatic pH conditions
What is hte pH of human plasma? 7.35-7.45
How is human plasma pH maintained? Accomplished by weak salts, acids as conjugate pairs, bicarbonate system, and phosphate buffering system
What happens with pH below 7.35? Acidosis
What happens with pH above 7.45? Alkalosis
What is an enzyme? Protein; amino acids that contain ionizable groups
What is the ionic form of amino acids at pH of 7 called? Zwitterion
What is lost in proteins during peptide bond formation? ionic groups
What makes some amino acids acidic or basic? they have an aditional ionizable group on R
What is an example of an acidic amino acid? Glutamic acid; has an extra carboxyl group
Why is glutamic acid an acidic amino acid? The extra carboxyl group allows protein chains to be linked or conformed in a particular sjape which is crutial to enzyme function
Define enzyme Biocatalytic proteins that are among the most efficient known catalysts
What are the three unique features of enzymes? Efficiency, specificity, and regulation
Explain efficiency in terms of enzymes Consider acetyle choline in muscle contractions. The enzyme cholinesterase catalyzes the reaction with acetyle choline to form acetate and choline (acetyle choline is broken down almost immediately)
Explain specificity in terms of enzymes Most enzymes exhibit relative specificity: catalyze same type of reactions with relatively similar structured substances
What is an example of an enzyme with relative specificity? Monoamine oxidase; catalyst for norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine which are all similarly structured substances
Explain allosteric regulation in terms of enzymes Bind on some region of the enzyme to alter the active site so the Substrate is not recognized or to enhance the function of the Substrate
What are the who types of specificity in terms of enzymes? Relative and absolute
What is relative specificity? Catalysis of enzymatic reactions with relatively similar structured substances
What is absolute specificity? Catalysis of a specific substrate (consider 1 enzyme 1 substrate hypothesis)
What is an example of absolute specificity? Glycerol Kinase enzyme; L glycerol to L glycerol phosphate in the presence of glycerol kinase, but won't catalyze the reaction with R glycerol
What is an active site? Region of an enzyme that recognizes a given substrate and catalyzes the conversion of a substrate to a product
What is the most important thing to remember with enzymes? An enzymatic reaction will ALWAYS start and end with an enzyme; i.e.: neither created nor consmed in a reaction
At the active site, what are the 3 ways that the chemical reaction can be explained? Bond strain catalysis, acid-base catalysis, and orientation catalysis
What is bond strain catalysis? The Substrate binds to enzyme which causes bond strain and increases the probability that the bond will break
What is acid-base catalysis? The active site has R-groups (which are ionizable) and they interact as proton donors or acceptors
What is orientation catalysis? Substrate is held in a specific orientation that optimizes/maximizes the probability of a reaction
How does temperature play a role in enzymatic reaction rates? At low temperatures the enzyme is cold inactivated (reversible) as temperature increases, the conversion of S to P increases due to increase in kinetic activity. an optimim temperature is reached however at too high a temp the reaction stops
What happens at high temperatures in enzymatic reactions? The excessive heat causes the enzumatic activity to stop completely because the enzyme is denatured (structure is disrupted) which is often irreversible
How does pH play a role in enzyme activity? There is an optimum pH (Cos function) that varies from enzyme to enzyme. Altering tthe pH from optimum will effect ionizable groups of amino acids that make up the enzyme. Can also affect confirmation and alter recognition of substrate
Created by: kenzigustafson



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