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Biology module 11

module 11 study guide

Define: Invertebrates Animals that lack a backbone
Define: Vertebrates Animals that have a backbone.
Define: Spherical symmetry An organism possesses spherical symmetry if it can be cut into two identical halves by any cut that runs through the organism’s center.
Define: Radial symmetry An organism possesses radial symmetry if it can be cut into two identical halves by any longitudinal cut through its center.
Define: Bilateral symmetry An organism possesses bilateral symmetry if it can only be cut into two identical halves by a single longitudinal cut along its center which divides it into right and left halves.
Define: Epidermis An outer layer of cells designed to provide protection
Define: Mesenchyme The jellylike substance that separates the epidermis from the inner cells in a sponge
Define: Collar cells Flagellated cells that push water through a sponge
Define: Amoebocyte Cell that moves using pseudopods and performs a variety of functions in animals
Define: Gemmule A cluster of cells encased in a hard, spicule-reinforced shell
Define: Polyp The sessile, tubular form of a cnidarian with a mouth and tentacles at one end and a basal disk at the other
Define: Medusa A free-swimming cnidarian with a bell-shaped body and tentacles
Define: Epithelium Animal tissue consisting of one or more layers of cells that have only one free surface, because the other surface adheres to a membrane or other substance
Define: Mesoglea The jelly-like substance that separates the epithelial cells in a cnidarian
Define: Nematocysts Small capsules that contain a toxin which is injected into prey or predators
Define: Testes Organs that produce sperm
Define: Ovaries Organs that produce eggs
Define: Anterior end The end of an animal that contains its head
Define: Posterior end The end of an animal that contains its tail
Define: Circulatory system A system designed to transport food and other necessary substances throughout a creature’s body
Define: Nervous system A system of sensitive cells that respond to stimuli such as sound, touch, and taste
Define: Ganglia Masses of nerve cell bodies
Define: Hermaphroditic Possessing both the male and the female reproductive organs
Define: Regeneration The ability to regrow a missing part of the body
Define: Mantle A sheath of tissue that encloses the vital organs of a mollusk, secretes its shell, and performs respiration
Define: Shell A tough, multilayered structure secreted by the mantle, generally used for protection, but sometimes for body support
Define: Visceral hump A hump that contains a mollusk’s heart, digestive, and excretory organs
Define: Foot A muscular organ that is used for locomotion and takes a variety of forms depending on the animal
Define: Radula An organ covered with teeth that mollusks use to scrape food into their mouths
Define: Univalve An organism with a single shell
Define: Bivalve An organism with two shells
Do the vast majority of animals have backbones? No.
Determine the symmetry of an eagle Bilateral, because it can only be cut into identical right and left halves
Determine the symmetry of a jellyfish Radial, because any up and down cut through the center makes two identical halves
Determine the symmetry of a centipede Bilateral, because it can only be cut into identical right and left halves
Determine the symmetry of a mushroom Radial, because any up and down cut through the center makes two identical halves
How do sponges get their prey? Sponges get their prey by pulling water into themselves. The water brings algae, bacteria, and organic matter that sponges eat.
If a sponge is soft, does it contain spicules or spongin? What purpose do these substances serve in a sponge? It contains spongin, because spongin is soft. Spicules make a sponge hard and prickly. These substances support the sponge.
What is the predominant mode of asexual reproduction in a sponge? When asexually reproducing, sponges use budding.
What roles do amoebocytes play in the anatomy of a sponge? Amebocytes help digest and transport nutrients, they help carry waste to be excreted, they bring necessary gases such as oxygen to the cells, and they form the spicules or spongin.
When does a sponge produce gemmules? A sponge produces gemmules during inclement times.
What is the difference between the nematocysts of a hydra and those of a sea anemone? Hydra nematocysts are triggered with pressure, while the sea anemone’s are triggered chemically.
Why do cnidarians not need respiratory or excretory systems? Cnidarians do not need these systems because their body walls are so thin that gases diffuse right through them.
Some biology books say that jellyfish live “dual lives.” Why? Jellyfish spend part of their lives as polyps and the other part as medusas.
If a jellyfish reproduces sexually, what form is it in? It must be in medusa form, because jellyfish can only reproduce sexually in medusa form.
What is another name for a large coral colony? Large coral colonies are called coral reefs.
What benefits do earthworms give the plants in the soil that they inhabit? Earthworms bring minerals up from the lower parts of the soil and mix them with the nutrients at the top of the soil, which makes the soil fertile for plants. Their tunnels also allow oxygen to travel to the roots of a plant more easily.
If you pick up two earthworms and the first feels very slimy near the clitellum and the second does not, what can you conclude about the first earthworm? If the first earthworm feels slimy near the clitellum, this means that it is covered with a slime coat. Thus, the first one must have recently mated but not yet produced a cocoon.
What similarities exist between the hydra’s sexual reproduction and the earthworm’s? What differences exist? The earthworm is hermaphroditic and the hydra can be as well. However, although a hydra can sometimes mate with itself, an earthworm cannot.
What will happen to an earthworm if its cuticle gets dry? The earthworm will suffocate, because oxygen cannot travel through a dry cuticle.
Why don’t planarians need circulatory systems? Planarians do not need circulatory systems because the intestine is so highly-branched that all cells are near it, so they can get their food directly from the intestine.
If a flatworm has no complex nervous or digestive systems, is it most likely free-living or parasitic? Without complex nervous or digestive systems, it must not need to seek out and fully digest prey. The only way it can survive, therefore, is by being parasitic.
What is the main mode of asexual reproduction in a planarian? When planarians asexually reproduce, they do so by regeneration.
Place each organism in one of the following phyla: Porifera, Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Platyhelminthes. a. sea anemone b. clam. c. sponge d. flatworm e. segmented worm a. Cnidaria b. Mollusca c. Porifera d. Platyhelminthes e. Annelida
Created by: abigaileah