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CH 54

community populations of different species living close enough to interact with each other
interspecific interactions relationship between individuals of two or more species in a community
interspecific competition competition for resources between individuals of two or more species when resources are in short supply
competitive exclusion when populations of two similar species compete for same limited resources, the one that uses the resources more efficiently will have a reproductive advantage and eliminate the other population
ecological niche the sum of a species use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment
resource partitioning division of environmental resources by coexisting species where the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from those of all the coexisting species
character displacement the tendencies for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations of the same two species.
aposematic coloration bright warning coloration of many animals with effective physical or chemical defenses
cryptic coloration camouflage that makes a potential prey difficult to spot against its background
Batesian mimicry harmless species looks like a species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators
Mullerian mimicry reciprocal mimicry by two unpalatable species
herbivory interaction in which an organism eats part of a plant or alga
symbiosis an ecological relationship between organisms of two different species that live together in direct and intimate contact
parasitism a symbiotic relationship in which one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host, by living either within or on the host
parasite an organism that feeds on the cell contents, tissues, or body fluids of another species
endoparasite a parasite that lives within a host
ectoparasite a parasite that feeds on the external surface of a host
mutualism a symbiotic relationship in which both participants benefit
obligate mutualism mutualistic relationship in which at least one species has lost the ability to survive on its own
facultative mutualism mutualistic relationship in which both species can survive alone
commensalism a symbiotic relationship between two species that benefits one while the other is neither harmed nor helped
facilitation an interaction in which one species has a positive affect on the survival and reproduction of another species without the intimate association of a symbiosis
species diversity the variety of different kinds of organisms that make up a community
species richness a component of species diversity describing the number of different species in the community
relative abundance a component of species diversity that describes what percent or proportion each species represents of all individuals in the community
Shannon diversity an index of community diversity
biomass the total mass of all organisms in a habitat
invasive species a species often introduced by humans that takes hold outside its native range
trophic structure the different feeding relationships in an ecosystem
food chain path along which food energy is transferred from trophic level to trophic level, beginning with producers
food web interconnected feeding relationships in an ecosystem
energetic hypothesis concept that the length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain
dominant species the species in a community that are the most abundant or have the highest biomass
keystone species a species that is not necessarily the most abundant, but which exerts strong control on the community structure due to its ecological role or niche
ecosystem engineers an organism that influences community structure by causing physical changes in the environment
bottom-up model model of community organization in which nutrients influence community organization by controlling plant or phytoplankton numbers, which in turn control herbivore numbers, which in turn control predator numbers
top-down model model of community organization in which predation influences community organization by controlling herbivore numbers, which in turn control plant or phytoplankton numbers, which in turn control nutrient levels; also called the trophic cascade model
biomanipulation an approach that applies the top-down model of community organization to alter ecosystem characteristics
disturbance a natural or human-caused event that changes a biological community and usually remove organisms from it; it can play a pivotal role in the structure of many communities
nonequilibrium model a model that maintains that communities change constantly after being buffeted by disturbances
intermediate disturbance hypothesis concept that moderate levels of disturbances can foster greater species diversity than low or high levels of disturbance
ecological succession `transition in the species composition of a community following a disturbance; establishment of a community in an area virtually barren of life
primary succession type of ecological succession that occurs in an area where there were originally no organisms present and where soil has not yet formed
secondary succession type of ecological succession that occurs in a community that has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil barren
evapotranspiration the total evaporation of water from an ecosystem, including water transpired by plants and evaporated from a landscape, usually measured in mm and estimated for a year
species-area curve the biodiversity pattern that shows that the larger the geographic area of a community is, the more species it has
pathogens an organism or virus that causes disease
zoonotic pathogens a disease-causing agent that is transmitted to humans from other animals
vector organism that transmits pathogens from one host to another
Created by: Fox Science
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