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Digestive System

A&P II Gwinnett Technical College

TermDefinition
accessory digestive organs food does not pass through these organs (ex. liver, pancreas, gall bladder)
acetylcholine, histamine, gastrin three chemicals that act on the parietal cell to increase acid production
acinus exocrine cells arranged in a sac-like structure
adventitia outermost connective tissue later found on organs outside the peritoneal cavity
amino acids form proteins are in when they are absorbed in the intestines
ampulla of Vater anatomical structure formed by the union of the pancreatic duct and common bile duct prior to entrance into the duodenum
amylase chemical digestion in mouth (starch)
amylase enzyme made by parotid gland
amylase, lysozyme, ions, water, mucus five components of saliva
bicarbonate chemical made by the pancreas to neutralize stomach acid
bile fluid that emulsifies fats (breaking into smaller fat droplets)
bile salts part of bile that emulsifies fats
bilirubin part of bile that comes from hemoglobin
bolus ball of food that if formed in the mouth prior to deglutition
Brunner's gland structure that makes mucus - located in the duodenal submucosa
brush border enzymes small intestine enzymes that include disaccharidases and dipeptidases located in the membrane of microvilli
cardia part of the stomach around opening to the esophagus
cholecystokinin hormone that causes gall bladder contraction, secretion of pancreatic juice high in enzymes , feeling of fullness, shut down of stomach secretion
chylomicron lipoprotein made by the small intestinal epithelial cell that travels in the lymph
chylomicron, LDL, HDL three lipoproteins
common hepatic duct bile duct formed by merging of right and left hepatic ducts
crown part of the tooth above the gum
Crypt of Lieberkuehn deep crevice between two villi in the small intestine
cystic duct bile passageway between common hepatic duct and the gall bladder
deglutition swallowing
diaphragmatic hernia a condition when portion of the stomach develops in the thoracic cavity - present in newborns
diffusion process by which fats are absorbed in the small intestine
duodenum, jejunum, ileum three parts of the small intestine
enteroendocrine cell epithelial cells in the stomach and intestines that make hormones
enterokinase enzyme that activated trypsinogen
epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa three parts of the mucosa of GI organs
facilitated diffusion process by which water-soluble amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed in the small intestine
falciform ligament form of peritoneum that connects the liver and the diaphragm
fatty acids and monoglycerides form triglycerides are in when they are absorbed in the small intestine
flatus gas
G-cell cell that makes gastrin (enteroendocrine cell of the stomach)
gastrin hormone made by G-cells that increases acid production by the stomach
gingiva gum
greater omentum fold of peritoneum that hangs from the stomach over the abdominal organs (fatty apron)
haustra puckers of the large intestine due to the taeniae coli
HCl and intrinsic factor products of parietal cells
hepatic artery artery that brings oxygenated blood to the liver
hepatic portal vein blood vessel that brings nutrients from the intestines to the liver before they reach the general circulation
hiatal hernia a condition when a portion of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity
hydrolysis adding water to break a bond
ileocecal valve valve located between the small and large intestines
inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of smooth muscle two laters of muscularis externa
intraperitoneal an organ that is surrounded on all sides by peritoneum
jaundice elevated bilirubin in the blood
jejunum site of most nutrient absorption
jejunum, ileum parts of the small intestine that are entirely intraperitoneal
Kupffer cells cells found in sinusoids of the liver
labia lip
lacteal lymph vessel present in the villus of the small intestine
lesser omentum fold of peritoneum that connects the liver and the stomach
lipase pancreatic enzyme that breaks down fats
make insulin (and glucagon) purpose of the iselt of Langerhans
mastication chewing
maxillae and palatine bones that make up the hard palate
mesentery proper fold of peritoneum that connects the small intestine to the posterior wall
mesocolon fold of peritoneum that connects the transverse colon with the abdominal wall
microvilli extensions of the cell membrane on the small intestinal epithelial cell
molar type of tooth for grinding food
monosaccharides form carbohydrates are in when absorbed in the intestine
mucus acinus type of acinus makes thick secretion high in mucus
oropharynx and laryngopharynx parts of the pharynx for both food and air
pancreas, parotid gland glands that contain almost entirely serous acini
pancreatic amylase pancreatic enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates
Paneth cell cell in intestine that makes lysozyme (antibacterial)
parasympathetic nervous system part of the ANS that causes defecation
pepsin (protein) chemical digestion in stomach
pepsinogen product of chief cell
periodontal ligament structure that connects tooth to bone in a gomphosis
peristalsis contraction of circular and longitudinal muscles throughout the digestive tract to move food forward
Peyer's Patch large lymphatic tissue nodules present in the submucosa of the ileum
plica circulares circular folds of the submucosa and mucosa in the small intestine
pulp cavity hollow part of the tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves
pyloric valve valve between the stomach and duodenum
retroperitoneal an organ that has only one side covered by visceral peritoneum (duodenum, kidney, pancreas)
root part of the tooth below the gum
rugae folds of mucosa and submucosa in the stomach
secretin hormone that causes secretion of pancreatic juice high in bicarbonate, shut down of stomach secretion
segmentation random constriction of the circular layer of muscle in the small intestine
serosa or visceral peritoneum most superifical histological layer of an intraperitoneal organ
serous acinus type of acinus that makes watery secretion
simple columnar type of epithelium lining the stomach
simple squamous type of epithelium in visceral peritoneum
sinusoid type of capillary (very leaky) in the liver
smooth type of muscle tissue found in muscularis mucosa
some B vitamins and K vitamins made by bacteria in the GI tract
stratified squamous type of epithelium lining the esophagus
sublingual gland gland that contains almost entirely mucus acini
submandibular gland gland that contains relatively equal amounts of mucus and serous acini
sucrase, maltase, lactase three disaccharidases
taeniae coli longitudinal bands of muscle in the large intestine
triad region histological region between liver lobules that contain bile duct, hepatic artery, and branch of the hepatic portal vein
trypsin enzyme that activates chymotrypsinogen
trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidase three pancreatic zygomens (proenzymes)
vagus nerve involved in cephalic phase of stomach control
villi extensions of the lamina propria in the small intestine to create finger-like extensions
vitamin B12 absorption purpose of intrinsic factor
zygomen or proenzyme inactive form of an enzyme
Created by: DJKILL9632