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Aorta/IVC Pathology

What is the most common arterial pathology? atherosclerosis
atherosclerosis plaque deposits collect & harden the artery
thrombus blood clot resulting from atherosclerosis, bleeding disorders, or injury
occlusion lumen is completely blocked by plaque or thrombus; no blood flow
embolism piece of plaque/clot that breaks off & travels
stenosis any narrowing of the lumen; leads to reduced perfusion
aortic aneurysm localized dilation & weakening of vessel wall; more common in males
What is the measurement criteria to be considered an aortic aneurysm? Measures twice the normal size (or >50% of AP measurement on US)
What is the main reason for evaluating the aorta? aortic aneurysms
Fusiform aneurysm spindle shaped; entire vessel wall involved; mostly below renal arteries
Saccular aneurysm bulge on one side of vessel; involves one area of the vessel wall
What is the most common form of aortic aneurysm? Fusiform
Mycotic aneurysm irreversible dilation of vessel due to infection; unable to distinguish on US
How do aneurysms present? Asymptomatic; can be a palpable pulsatile mass; symptoms are rare, but can include abdominal pain, back or leg pain, & abdominal bruit
abdominal bruit noise heard with a stethoscope
What are symptoms of Iliac artery aneurysms? nonspecific abdominal or pelvic pain
Aortic Dissection the intima is torn away from the vessel wall & appears as 2 compartments; typically begins in thoracic aorta
What are the symptoms of aortic dissection? SHARP abdominal pain, palpable mass, and/or paralysis/syncope
Aortic rupture lateral wall of vessel explodes open, leaking blood into abdominal cavity; EMERGENT situation
What are the symptoms of aortic rupture? intense back pain, shock, expanding abdomen
Pseudoaneurysm a hole in the vessel wall, usually from a puncture; vessel walls are NOT involved
What are symptoms of pseudoaneurysms? low back pain, swelling of abdomen & extremities
What is the MOST common IVC pathology? IVC Thrombus
Why is an IVC thrombus so life threatening? It can dislodge & move to the lungs as a pulmonary embolus (PE)
How do they treat IVC thrombi? IVC filters, anticoagulants, thrombolysis
What are the symptoms of IVC thrombus? usually Asymptomatic; can be swelling in lower extremities
What is the most common intravascular tumor? Renal Cell Carcinoma
What % of thrombi in veins come from the lower extremities? 90%
How does an IVC tumor appear on US image? vessel enlargement, an intraluminal mass is present, & there IS vascularity in the mass
What are risk factors for AAA? atherosclerosis, family history, smoking, high BP
What needs to be reported about the location of an AAA? whether it is superior or inferior to the renal arteries & its distance from them
Sonographic findings for aneurysms will show: widening of the vessel in BOTH planes & an absence of tapering below the renal vessels
Sonographic findings for aortic dissections will show: color doppler in both lumens with a thin, echogenic line in the lumen
Sonographic findings for pseudoaneurysms will show: a pulsatile mass outside the vessel, a visible neck connecting to the vessel, & a yin-yang color flow
Created by: ginaliane