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Intro Bio Terms

Metabolism The sum of all chemical reactions that take place inside the cell. Anabolism= simple to complex (synthesis) Catabolism=complex to simple (breakdown)
Functions of Carbs Provide and store energy, spare fat and proteins from being used. Building blocks.
Functions of Lipids Provide and store energy, forming cell membranes. Building Blocks
Functions of Proteins Act as catalysts, transport, provide structure, and defense.
Vacuole Fluid filled organelles enclosed by a membrane. They can store materials such as food, water, sugar, minerals and waste products.
Autotroph Organisms that store chemical energy in carbohydrate food molecules they build themselves. Aka producers.
Heterotroph Organisms that cannot make their own food, thus they must consume it. Aka consumers.
Reproduction The process in which new organisms are created, by combining the genetic information from two individuals of different sexes
Enzymes Biological catalysts which speed up chemical reactions, but remain unchanged themselves.
Nucleolus creates rRNA to make ribosomes and sends out mRNA to order said ribosomes around.
Transcription The process of transcribing or making a copy of genetic information stored in a DNA strand into a complementary strand of RNA (messenger RNA or mRNA) with the aid of RNA polymerases.
Cells Building blocks of life that divide. They have organelles that help the organism function.
Pancreas A long, irregularly shaped gland in vertebrate animals that is located behind the stomach and is part of the digestive system. It secretes hormones into the bloodstream and digestive enzymes into the small intestine or gut.
Chromosome Rod-shaped structures within the cell nucleus that carry genes encoded by DNA.
Translation The process of translating the codon sequence in mRNA into polypeptides with the help of tRNA and ribosomes. Trans position
Heredity The passing of genetic factors from parent to offspring (or from one generation to the next)
Small intestine The part of the intestine that lies between the stomach and colon, secretes digestive enzymes, and is the chief site of the absorption of digested nutrients.
Villi A minute projection arising from a mucous membrane that is found in small intestine.
Passive Transport Passing particles through cell membrane WITHOUT the use of energy, like osmosis and diffusion.
Codominance The alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed thereby resulting in offspring with a phenotype that is neither dominant nor recessive
Homeostasis The act of the body adjusting to its surroundings.
Prokaryotic No nucleus or organelles
Active Transport Passing particles through cell membrane WITH the use of energy.
Incomplete dominance When one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele. This results in a third phenotype in which the expressed physical trait is a combination of the phenotypes of both alleles.
Life Cycle The whole life history of an organism, usually depicted through a series of developmental stages (e.g. from zygote into a mature form where another zygote can be produced) in which an organism goes through.
Eukaryotic Contains nucleus and organelles
Hypertonic The total molar concentration of all dissolved solute particles is greater than that of another solution, or greater than the concentration in a cell.
Sex-linked traits A trait that is controlled by a gene or an allele located on the sex chromosome.
Hydrolysis A chemical reaction in which water is used to break down a compound.
Cell membrane Encloses cell contents, monitors what goes in/out (selective permeability)
Hypotonic The total molar concentration of all dissolved solute particles is less than that of another solution or less than that of a cell.
Karyotypes Photomicrographs (photographs taken through a microscope) of all the chromosomes in a person, arranged in standard classification (from #1 chromosomes through to the sex chromosomes).
Acids and Bases Acids release H+ in water. Bases release OH- in water.
Mitochondria POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL Creates ATP via cellular respiration.
Isotonic The total molar concentration of dissolved solutes is the same in both environments.
Polarity A separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
Chloroplast Organelle that produces chlorophyll. Plant cells only.
Cell Respiration equation C6H12O6 + 6O2 —> 6CO2 + 6H2O
Cohesion The sticking together of alike molecules.
Lysosome Enzyme sacks that break down cellular waste and convert it into building materials.
Photosynthesis equation 6CO2 + 6H2O —> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Cell Cycle The cycle of growth and asexual reproduction of a cell, consisting of interphase followed in actively dividing cells by prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
Mitosis Cell division that results in the formation of two cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cells, i.e., cell division that forms all new cells except sex cells.
Meiosis The type of cell division that occurs in sex cells by which gametes having the haploid number (23) of chromosomes are produced from diploid (46) cells.
Adhesion The tendency of dissimilar particles or surfaces to cling to one another.
Ribosome Organelle that assembles amino acids into polypeptides.
Viruses A small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Natural selection A process in which organisms evolve to adapt to environment
Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen bonding with small, highly electronegative elements (nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine)
Covalent Bonding Sharing electrons among nonmetallic elements
Ionic Bonding Metal and nonmetal bonding together
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Tubes that transport things around the cell and has a phospolipid bilayer. Contains enzymes that create lipids. Detoxes the cell. Stores ions in solution.
Bottleneck Effect The loss of genetic variation that occurs after outside forces destroy most of a population.
Artificial selection The breeding of plants and animals to produce desirable traits
Parts of an atom Nucleus (proton, neutron), electron, electron cloud
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Tubes that transport things around the cell and has a phospolipid bilayer. Has ribosomes attatched. Synthezises proteins.
Founder Effect The loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.
Genetic Drift A mechanism of evolution in which allele frequencies of a population change over generations due to chance (sampling error).
Organic compound Anything that has carbon.
Golgi Apparatus Processes/stores proteins and send them out of the cell.
Darwin English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Mutations Permanent inheritable changes in a single gene (point mutation) that result in the existence of two or more alleles occurring at the same locus.
Carbs Any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose.
Lipid Any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.
Proteins Any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms.
Nucleic acids Contain hereditary information. Form DNA and RNA.
Cell Wall Cellulose wall around plant cell.
Lamarck French naturalist who proposed that evolution resulted from the inheritance of acquired characteristics (1744-1829)
Migration Moving from one place to another
Dehydration A chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule.
Allopatric Speciation When a species divides into separate groups which are isolated from one another, and a new species develops.
Peripatric Speciation When small groups of individuals break off from the larger group and form a new species.
Parapatric Speciation When a species is spread out over a large geographic area.
Sympatric Speciation When a new species, perhaps based on a different food source or characteristic, seems to develop spontaneously.
Artificial Speciation The creation of new species by people.
Group A Blood Has only the A antigen on red cells (and B antibody in the plasma).
Group B Blood Has only the B antigen on red cells (and A antibody in the plasma).
Group AB Blood Has both A and B antigens on red cells (but neither A nor B antibody are in the plasma).
Group O Blood Has neither A nor B antigens on red cells (but both A and B antibody are in the plasma).
Directional Selection A mode of natural selection in which a single phenotype is favored, causing the allele frequency to continuously shift in one direction
Disruptive (Diversifying) Selection A mode of natural selection in which extreme values for a trait are favored over intermediate values
Stabilizing Selection A type of natural selection in which genetic diversity decreases as the population stabilizes on a particular trait value
Frequency Dependent Selection The term given to an evolutionary process where the fitness of a phenotype is dependent on its frequency relative to other phenotypes in a given population
Sexual Selection Natural selection arising through preference by one sex for certain characteristics in individuals of the other sex.
Monomers The simplest unit, or the repeating unit, of a polymer.
Polymers Made from monomers linked by chemical bonds
Created by: abean_bean
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