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Biology module 10

Module 10 study guide

Define: Ecology The study of the interactions between living and nonliving things
Define: Population A group of interbreeding organisms coexisting together
Define: Community A group of populations living and interacting in the same area
Define: Ecosystem An association of living organisms and their physical environment
Define: Biome A group of ecosystems classified by climate and plant life
Define: Primary Consumor An organism that eats producers
Define: Secondary consumer An organism that eats primary consumers
Define: Tertiary consumer An organism that eats secondary consumers
Define: Ecological pyramid A diagram that shows the biomass of organisms at each trophic level
Define: Biomass A measure of the total dry mass of organisms within a particular region
Define: Transpiration Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant
Define: Watershed An ecosystem where all water runoff drains into a single body of water
Define: Greenhouse Effect The process by which certain gases (principally water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane) trap heat that would otherwise escape the earth and radiate into space
When fruits or vegetables are imported into the U.S. from a foreign country, they are always very closely inspected for insects, even though the vast majority of insects are not really harmful. Why is the inspection done? If an insect not native to the U.S. were carried into the country through foreign fruits and vegetables, it could ruin the balance of the U.S. ecosystem.
Name the participants in the three new symbiotic relationships that we learned in this module. Clownfish & sea anemone; Goby & blind shrimp; Oriental sweetlips & blue-streak wrasse
What fundamental assumption of macroevolution does mutualism seem to contradict? Mutualism seems to contradict the idea that organisms always battle for survival.
In the water cycle of an ocean shore ecosystem, more water evaporates from the ocean than falls back into the ocean in the form of rain. Why doesn’t the ocean lose water? The ocean does not lose water because the land gets the excess water, and that excess water flows back into the ocean via surface runoff (or as runoff from a river or stream).
What does the water cycle accomplish besides balancing the water in an ecosystem? It transports nutrients with an ecosystem and even from one ecosystem to another.
What is the possible consequence if deforestation occurs in a watershed? If too many trees and plants are removed from a watershed, too many nutrients will flow into the river or stream, throwing off the ecosystem.
What is the principal means by which oxygen is taken from the air? What is the principal means by which it is restored to the air? Oxygen is taken from the air principally by respiration and is restored principally by photosynthesis.
Name the other ways that oxygen is removed from the air. Oxygen is also removed from the air by fire, ozone formation, and the rusting of metals and minerals.
Name the other ways that oxygen is replenished in the air. Oxygen is also restored by ozone destruction and water vapor destruction.
Name the ways in which carbon dioxide is removed from the air. Carbon dioxide leaves the air by photosynthesis and by dissolving in the ocean.
Name the ways in which carbon dioxide is replenished in the air. Carbon dioxide enters the air via decomposition, fossil fuel burning, fire, and respiration.
What human activity worries those who think that global warming is a problem? Fuel burning worries those who think that global warming is a problem, because it is a humanmade way of adding more carbon dioxide to the air.
Is human-produced global warming occurring now? No, all measurable data indicate that any warming which did take place occurred before humans really started burning fuels in earnest.
What is nitrogen fixation? What type of organisms perform it? Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen gas from the atmosphere is converted into nitrogen-containing molecules that are useful to most of organisms in creation. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria perform it.
What two ways does the nitrogen in organisms get put back into the environment? Organisms emit some nitrogen in their wastes, and the rest is turned back into useful forms of nitrogen by the decomposers that feed on their decaying remains.
Briefly describe the roles of each symbiotic relationship we learned about in this module. cl. & s. a. - Clownfish is protected by sea anemone & attracts prey to it. g. & b.s.- B. shrimp makes a home for the goby; & the latter protects the b. shrimp. o.s. & b.s.w. - O. sweetlips gets his teeth cleaned by b.s. wrasse & provides food for it.
Created by: abigaileah
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