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Injuries to the Foot

- repeated ankle trauma - pain with weight bearing - swelling (intermittent), catching, snapping - Talar dome TTP Fracture of the Talus
- caused by jump or fall from height - often results in avulsion fractures (ant or post) - immediate swelling, pain, unable to weight bear Fracture of the Calcaneus
- repetitive trauma - onset in plantar-calcaneal area - pain with weight bearing - complaints of pain post-exercise Stress Fracture of the Calcaneus
- traction injury at apophysis of calcaneus where Achilles attaches - pain at post heel below Achilles attachment - found in children or adolescent athletes - pain during vigorous activity, ceases following activity Sever’s Disease
- inflammation of bursa beneath Achilles tendon - rubbing of shoe heel counter - develops over time, may take extensive time to resolve - Haglund’s deformity (if exostosis develops) - TTP above & ant to Achilles insertion, swelling on both sides of heel Retrocalcaneal Bursitis
- sudden, starts, stops, or changes in direction; irritation to fat pad - severe pain on lateral aspect of heel - unable to weight bear - warm, redness over tender area Heel Contusion
- pronation and trauma injury - often confused with plantar fasciitis - pain from stress on fib longus mus when in pronation - pain along 4th & 5th MT and over cuboid - pain may refer to heel or increase after prolonged non-weight bearing Cuboid Subluxation
- condition that compromises tib post, flex hal long, flex dig, tib nerve artery or vein - may result from previous fracture, tenosynovitis, acute trauma - pain & paresthesia at medial & plantar foot - motor weakness & atrophy - increase pain at night wi Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome (often seen in dancers)
An abnormal “zinging” sensation Tinel’s Sign
- hyper-plantar flexed - specific fracture at midfoot - dorsal displ of MT prox ends - results in locked rearfoot - pain, inability to weight bear, swelling, & localized tenderness at dorsum of foot Lisfranc Injury (Tarsometatarsal fracture/dislocation)
- abnormal short 1st MT, making 2nd toe look longer - weight bearing occurs on 2nd toe, can impact gait - pain during & after activity, possible point tenderness - callus develops under 2nd MT head Morton’s Toe
- increased tension & stress on fascia - poor footwear & running technique - leg length discrepancy, excessive pronation, inflexible longitudinal arch, tight gastroc-soleus - pain ant med heel, increased in morning & with forefoot DF Plantar Fasciitis
- fracture of MT caused by inv & PF - direct force (stepped on) or repetitive stress - most common at base of 5th MT - immediate swelling & pain at 5th MT - high non-union rate, healing unpredictable Jones Fracture
- March fracture at 2nd MT, 5th MT fracture at per brev - changes in running pattern, increased intensity/duration of training - forefoot varus, hallux valgus, or short 1st MT - 2-3 weeks of dull ache, progress to pain at rest - pain from diffuse to loca Metatarsal Stress Fractures
- exostosis of 1st MT head - inflamed bursa thickens, enlarges joint causing lateral malalignment of great toe - tenderness, swelling, angulation increases - tendinitis of great toe flexors may develop Bunion (Hallux Valgus)
- impacts 5th MTP joint - causes med displ of 5th toe Bunionette (Tailor’s bunion)
- repetitive hyperextension of great toe - pain under great toe during push-off - tenderness under 1st MT head Sesamoiditis
- pain in ball of foot (2nd & 3rd MT heads), fallen MT arch - restricted extension of gastroc-soleus - toe-off phase of gait - transverse arch flattened - predisposed to ankle sprain - Cavus foot (high arch) may cause issue Metatarsalgia
- thickening of nerve sheath at divide into dig branches - common b/n 3rd & 4th MT heads (med & lat plantar nerves come together) - irritated by collapse of transverse arch - burning, paresthesia, severe intermittent pain in forefoot - pain relieved with Morton’s Neuroma
- generally caused by kicking nonyielding object - pushes joint beyond normal ROM or imparting twisting motion - pain immediate, intense but short lived - immediate swelling, discoloration in 1-2 days - stiffness & residual pain lasts several weeks Sprained Phalange
- hyperextension injury resulting sprain of 1st MT - may be single or repetitive trauma - pain, swelling increases during push-off, walking, running, and jumping Great Toe Hyperextension (Turf Toe)
- kicking of unyielding object, stubbing toe, or stepped on - dislocations less common than fractures - immediate, intense pain - obvious deformity with dislocation Fractures & Dislocations of Phalanges
- flexion contracture at prox IP (PIP) joint - flexible deformity - can become fixed Hammer Toe
- flexion contracture at the dist IP (DIP) joint - can become fixed Mallet Toe
- flexion contracture of the DIP joint - hyperextension at the MP joint - MP, DIP, & PIP all become fixed - swelling, pain, callus formation, occasionally infection Claw Toe
- may be congenital - improper fitting footwear (narrow shoes) - outward projection of great toe articulation - drop in longitudinal arch Overlapping Toes
- direct pressure, dropping object on toe, kicking object - repetitive shearing forces on toenail - accumulation of blood under toenail - likely produces extreme pain & loss of nail Subungual Hematoma
Created by: natamccl
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