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BIOLOGY module 9

module 9 study guide

QuestionAnswer
Define: The immutability of species The idea that each individual species on the planet was specially created by God and could never fundamentally change
Define: Microevolution The theory that natural selection can, over time, take an organism and transform it into a more specialized species of that organism.
Define: Macroevolution The hypothesis that processes similar to those at work in microevolution can, over eons of time, transform an organism into a completely different kind of organism
Define: Strata Distinct layers of rock
Define: Fossils Preserved remains of once-living organisms
Define: Paleontology The study of fossils
Define: Structural homology The study of similar structures in different species
Where did Darwin do most of the work which led to his hypothesis of evolution? He did most of his research while he was on board the HMS Beagle.
Did Darwin ever recant his scientific beliefs? No.
What was the main idea that Thomas Malthus’s work gave to Darwin? Malthus believed in a constant struggle for survival.
What was the main idea that Sir Charles Lyell’s work gave to Darwin? Lyell came up with the idea that the present is the key to the past. He thought that the entire geological column could be explained by referring to the same processes that we see happening today.
What age-old concept was Darwin able to dispel with his research? Darwin dispelled the idea of the immutability of the species.
A herd of horses was living in an area where food near the ground was scarce; but there was plenty of food in the trees. After several generations, the horses gave rise to giraffes that could reach food in trees, is this microevolution or macroevolution? macroevolution
Consider a fish population that is trying to survive under conditions of extremely cold water. Over several generations, the fish develop thicker fat layers under their skin for better insulation, is this an example of microevolution or macroevolution? microevolution
From a genetic point of view, what is the main difference between microevolution and macroevolution? In microevolution, the same genetic code exists through the change. The changes that occur are because of variation in that genetic code. For macroevolution, information must be added to the genetic code, essentially creating a new genetic code.
a. geological column: indicate whether it is evidence for or against macroevolution or if it is inconclusive. Briefly explain why. The geological column: if believed that t'was formed according to the speculations of Lyell, it is evidence for macroevolution. If you believe that the geological column was formed by natural catastrophe, then it is evidence against macroevolution.
b. fossil record Fossil record: against. There are no clear intermediate links in the fossil record. The few that macroevolutionists can produce are so similar to one of the two species they "link"; that it's sounder in science to consider them a part of that species.
c. structural homology Structural homology: against. The similar structures are not a result of inheritance from a common ancestor, because the similar structures are determined by quite different genes.
d. molecular biology Molecular biology: against. The vast majority of the data show no evolutionary patterns in the sequences of amino acids of common proteins.
Name two creatures that macroevolutionists claim are intermediate links and why they are not really intermediate links. Australopithecus afarensis is supposed to link men & apes. But, every bone that we have found of this creature says it's an ape. Thus, it is safest to say it's an ape. Archaeopteryx "links" birds and reptiles; but the fossils tells us it's a bird.
What is the Cambrian Explosion? Why is it a problem for macroevolution? Every major animal phylum in creation can be found in Cambrian rock. It makes 2 problems for macroevolution: a. There's no way macroevolutionists understand how it proceeded so quickly during those times. b. There are just no intermediate links.
What are the four ways a bacterium can become resistant to an antibiotic? conjugation, transformation, transduction, and mutation.
If a bacterium has a mutation that makes it resistant to an antibiotic, does information get added to its genetic code? No information is added.
Consider the which of the following *flashcard* is most similar with the following amino acid sequence: Gly-Ile-Phe-Gly-Arg-His-Ser-Gly-Glu(NH2)-Ala-Glu(NH2)-Arg-Arg-Lys
a.Gly-Ile-Gly-Gly-Arg-His-Gly-Gly-Glu(NH2)-Glu-Glu(NH2)-Lys-Lys-Lys b. Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly-Arg-Lys-Ser-Gly-Glu(NH2)-Gly-Glu(NH2)-Ala-Arg-Lys c. Leu-Ile-Gly-Gly-Arg-His-Ser-Gly-Glu(NH2)-Ala-Glu(NH2)-Arg-Arg-Arg The protein in "c" should be most similar.
Based on macroevolutionary assumptions, which organism’s cytochrome C should most resemble that of a yeast: a kangaroo or a bacterium? A bacterium's chromosome C
What main problem with Darwin’s hypothesis did neo-Darwinism hope to solve? Neo-Darwinism hoped to provide a mechanism by which information could be added to the genetic code of an organism.
What problem with Darwin’s hypothesis did punctuated equilibrium attempt to solve? Punctuated equilibrium attempts to explain away the fact that the fossil record is devoid of any real intermediate links.
How would an adherent to punctuated equilibrium explain the lack of intermediate links in the fossil record? Structural homology and molecular biology still say that macroevolution (even by punctuated equilibrium) could not have happened.
What problems mentioned in this module still exist for those who believe in punctuated equilibrium? Structural homology and molecular biology still say that macroevolution (even by punctuated equilibrium) could not have happened.
Created by: abigaileah