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The Cell Chapter 3

Smallest Unit of Life cell (helps to maintain homeostasis)
Cell functions metabolism transportation communication reproduction
plasma Membrane separates cell from everything from outside the cell Interacts with other cells
Phospholipid Bilayer governs interactions with other cells controls passage of material in and out of the cell
Cholesterol is important for... maintaining cell structure
ECF extracellular fluid
ICF intracellular fluid
What does NOT use the protein door and uses the phospholipid bilayer instead? small fats non charged particles
What goes through protein channels? water ions large fat soluble material
Integral Proteins protein channels
Peripheral proteins sit on top of cell marker bilayer to help identify
Ligand Gate responds to chemicals and only opens to certain chemicals/ions
Voltage opens to electrical impulses (things that have a charge)
cytoplasm liquid portion of the cell stores materials chemical reactions occur here
organelles specializes and structures compartmentalizes inside the cell
cytoskeleton helps maintain shape and function
mitochondria powerhouse of the cell makes ATP
peroxisomes breaks down fatty acids makes phospholipids for cell that makes the membrane of all cells in the nervous system
ribosome makes proteins
rough endoplasmic reticulum finishes folding proteins
smooth endoplasmic reticulum detoxifies drugs does not have ribosomes stores calcium makes lipids
Golgi apparatus "UPS" store packages proteins and send them off
lysosomes "garbage truck" eats dead cells, organelles, proteins very acidic makes enzyme hydrolase
cytoskeleton gives shape and structure of the cells offers support gives organelles something to anchor to allows cell to move
actin filament thinnest offers support and stretch
intermediate filament medium long and twisted can withstand tension
microtubules extend from centrosome pair of centrioles critical for cellular division
microvilli made of actin finger like projection increases surface area found in the intestinal tract
cilia hairlike moves in coordinated movement
flagella extension of cell allows for whip like movement only found in sperm
nucleus directs cell activities and contains DNA
chromatin long DNA molecule
sister chromatids identical copies of each chromosome
selectively permeable only certain things can go through (phospholipid bilayer)
passive transport requires no energy
active transport requires energy solutes move against concentration gradient
3 ways on determining how a substance is able to move across the plasma membrane by passive or active transport type of substance plasma membrane permeable to membrane concentration of substance in cytosol and ECF
diffusion movement of solute from high to low until equilibrium is reached
single diffusion cross membrane with no protein channel
facilitated diffusion cross membrane using protein channel
osmosis water moves from low to high concentration gradients
isotonic ECF and cytosol have same concentration of solute
hypertonic solute concentration in ECF is higher than inside the cell
hypotonic solute concentration of ECF is lower that inside the cell
sodium-potassium pump most vital for maintenance of sodium and potassium concentration gradient homeostasis
vesicles membrane packaging for protein
endocytosis receive/bring into cell
pinocytosis take in liquid
phagocytosis take in solid
exocytosis send protein out of the cell
solute what moves across membrane
solvent what cells are moving to and being dissolved
concentration gradient how much solute is on both sides of the cell
Created by: A&P122
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