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Biology OYO

Module 5

5.1 The Bohr model of the atom is sometimes called the "planetary model" of the atom. Why? Because the electrons are orbiting the protons and neutrons like a planet in a solar system.
5.2 What determines all of an atom's properties? What determines the vast majority of an atom's properties? The number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in an atom. Electrons.
5.3 An atom has 13 electrons. How many protons does it have? Thirteen because there are always the same amount of protons as there are electons.
5.4 Two different atoms have slightly different properties, but they belong to the same element. What is different about them: their numbers of protons, neutrons, or electrons? Their neutrons.
5.5 The element carbon is composed of all atoms that have 6 protons. One of the atoms in the element carbon is carbon-13. How many protons, electrons, and neutrons are in a carbon-13 atom? Six protons, six electrons, and seven neutrons.
5.6 Identify each of the following as either an atom, element, or molecule: a.NH3 b.P c.carbon-14 d.S e.P4 a. molecule b. element c. atom d. element e. molecule
5.7 A student is told to study the chemicals nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and determine their differences. The student reports back that there are no differences between the molecules because they are made up of the same elements.
5.7(continued) Is the student right or wrong? Why? Wrong. Because even the slightest difference in an atom count could completely alter the characteristics of an element.
5.8 Name each element and the number of atoms of that element in one molecule of acetic acid (C2H4O2), which is the active ingredient of vinegar. Two carbon atoms, four hydrogen atoms, and two oxygen atoms.
5.9 Identify the following changes as chemical or physical: a. putting milk on cereal b. baking bread c. boiling salt water a. physical b. chemical c. physical
5.10 A semipermeable membrane is placed in a beaker. Equal amounts of salt water solution are placed on each side of the membrane, but the solution on one side is twice as concentrated with salt as is the solution of the other side.
5.10(continued) After one hour, the water level of the solution on the right increases, and the water level of the solution on the left decreases. Which solution started out with the higher salt concentration? The right side.
5.11 One of the main chemical reactions used to run an automobile engine is the combustion of octane (C8H18): 2C8H18 + 25O2 = 16CO2 + 18H2O a. Write the chemical formulas of the reactants. b. Write the chemical formulas of the products. a. 2C8H18 & 25O2 b. 16CO2 & 18H2O
5.11(continued) c. How many molecules of C8H18 are used in this reaction? d. How many molecules of H2O are made in this reaction? c. Two d. Eighteen
5.12 A plant loses all of its chlorophyll. Will it be able to produce any glucose at all? Yes, but a very limited amount.
5.13 A chemist is trying to speed up a chemical reaction. If the chemist does not have a catalyst, what other means can be used? High temperatures.
5.14 What is the chemical formula of the molecule with the structural formula on page 146.? C₂H₄.
5.15 A chemist takes a polysaccharide and turns it into many disaccharides. Has the chemist used dehydration or hydrolysis? Hydrolysis because it breaks down polysaccharides.
(5.16 & 5.17) A chemist measures the pH of several solutions. The results are: Solution A: 8.1, Solution B: 1.1, Solution C: 5.5, and Solution D: 13.2.
5.16 Which solution is the most alkaline? Solution D.
5.17 Which solution is the most acidic? Solution B.
5.18 If plenty of glycerol is available, how many fat molecules can be made from 15 fatty acid molecules? Five because there are three fatty acid molecules in a fat molecule.
5.19 Since dehydration reactions link amino acids in order to form proteins, you can probably guess that hydrolysis reactions break them down. Why don't proteins quickly break down into their amino acids when they are mixed with water? There are no enzymes to catalyze the hydrolysis reaction.
5.20 Suppose you have just one strand of a portion of DNA. This strand has the following order of nucleotide bases: adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine.
5.20(continued) If you could find the other strand of DNA that connects to this one to form the double helix, what would the order of nucleotide bases be? Thymine, guanine, adenine, and cytosine.
Created by: LiseBrinkley



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