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CH10- Genetics

QuestionAnswer
The physical gene location on the chromosome The locus( pl loci)
What is self-fertilization? Self-fertilization is when an organism can take it’s male gamete to fuse with it’s own female gamete. Minimal genetic variation will result. Easy to create offspring because the opposite gamete is physically right there.
Who is the " father of modern genetics? Gregor Mendel
What is cross-fertilization? is when an organism’s gametes fuse with the opposite gamete from another organism. This take more effort to find a mate, but creates genetic variation, which can improve the species and longevity of the species.
What are pure-bred or true breeding organisms? one that are homozygous for a gene
What is Mendel's Law of Segregation? Pairs of allelles on homologous chromosomes separate during meiosis and so each gamete will receive one allele of the pair.
What is the law of independent assortment? When inheritance for two or more traits is independent of each other. One trait phenotype is not dependent on another.
What is gene recombination? the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent
What sex chromosomes do a normal male have? A normal female? Males have XY, females have XX
Incomplete dominance a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele. This results in a third phenotype in which the expressed physical trait is a combination of the phenotypes of both alleles.
Co dominance Heterozygous shows both phenotypess of both homozygotes.
Polygenic inheritance More than two genes affect the phenotype (skin colour
Pleiotropy occurs when one gene influences two or more seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits.
Environment Temperature or environmental conditions affect the phenotype. (Siamese cats)
What is the purpose of a pedigree To determine the genetic make up of a family tree-it is the record of descent of an animal, showing it to be purebred.
What is an example of a recessive allele disorder. How can you tell that is is recessive? Albinism- it doesn't show up often in the population.
Non-disjunction Errors in meiosis that result in abnormal chromosome numbers.
Created by: Hayley Fear