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BIOLOGY module 7

module 7 study guide

Define: genetics The science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring
Define: genetic factors The general guideline of traits determined by a person’s DNA
Define: environmental factors Those “nonbiological” factors that are involved in a person’s surroundings such as the nature of the person’s parents, the person’s friends, and the person’s behavioral choices
Define: spiritual factors The factors in a person’s life that are determined by the quality of his or her relationship with God
Define: gene A section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein or a portion of protein, thereby causing a trait
Define: messenger RNA The RNA that performs transcription.
Define: anticondon The sequence of three nucleotide bases on tRNA
Define: condon A sequence of three nucleotide bases found on mRNA that refers to a specific type of amino acid.
Define: chromosome DNA coiled around and supported by proteins, found in the nucleus of a cell.
Define: mitosis A process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells
Define: interphase The time interval between cellular reproduction
Define: centromere The region that joins two sister chromatids join.
Define: mother cell A cell that is ready to begin reproduction that contains duplicated DNA and duplicated centrioles.
Define: karyotype The figure that is made when the chromosomes of a species (during metaphase) are arranged according to their homologous pairs.
Define: diploid cell A cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs.
Define: haploid cell A cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair.
Define: diploid number (2n) The total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell.
Define: haploid number (n) The total number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell.
Define: Meiosis The process by which a diploid cell forms gametes.
Define: Gametes Haploid cells produced by diploid cells for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
Define: Virus A non-cellular, infectious agent that has two characteristics: (1) It has RNA or DNA inside a protective protein coat. (2) It cannot reproduce on its own.
Define: antibodies Specialized proteins that help in destroying pathogens.
Define: vaccine A weakened/inactive version of a pathogen that helps the body produce more antibodies which can help in destroying the pathogen.
If the tRNA has this sequence: guanine, cytosine, adenine, adenine, thymine, guanine; what will the mRNA sequence be? cytosine, guanine, uracil, uracil, adenine, cytosine
If the tRNA has this sequence: guanine, cytosine, adenine, adenine, thymine, guanine; how many amino acids will mRNA code for? It takes three nucleotide bases to code for an amino acid. Since this has six, it will code for two amino acids.
If the tRNA has this sequence: guanine, cytosine, adenine, adenine, thymine, guanine; how many codons will the mRNA have? Each codon codes for one amino acid. Thus, there are two codons on the mRNA.
If the tRNA has this sequence: guanine, cytosine, adenine, adenine, thymine, guanine; What are the anticodons on the tRNA's that will bond to the mRNA? guanine, cytosine, adenine; and adenine, uracil, guanine
Fill in the blanks: DNA_____>> RNA ______>>> Protein a. transcription b. translation
If and RNA strand has an anticodon, is it a tRNA or mRNA? It's tRNA. (:
Protein synthesis is occurring in a ribosome. Is this a part of transcription or translation? If it is occurring in the ribosome, the proteins is actually being assembled. This is translation.
Suppose scientists determine that a set of genes is significantly more prevalent in murderers than in the population at large. Would that mean that murderers are not at fault for what they do? Why or why not? This would not mean that murders have no fault for what they do. Most genes only establish genetic trends. Environmental and spiritual factors affect the extent to which you follow those trends.
If you look under a microscope and see distinct chromosomes in a cell, is the cell in interphase? Why or why not? It is not in interphase. Chromosomes only pack into their condensed form during reproduction.
List the four stages of mitosis in order. Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
If the diploid number of a cell is 16, what is it's haploid number? Diploid number is the total number of chromosomes in the cell. Haploid number is the number of homologous pairs. If there are a total of 16 chromosomes, then there must be 8 pairs. The haploid number is 8.
If the haploid number of a cell is 9, what is it's diploid number? Since haploid number is the number of pairs, that tells us there are nine pairs. The diploid numbers is the total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell, which has both members of each pair. Since there are nine pairs, the diploid number is 9x2, or 18.
What's the difference between a gamete and a regular animal cell? A gamete is haploid while a regular animal cell is diploid. This means that a gamete has only one chromosome from each homologous pair. A regular cell always both members of each homologous pair.
List all the stages of meiosis in order. prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II.
Which is closer to mitosis: meiosis I or meiosis II? Meiosis II: It is essentially mitosis acting on two haploid cells.
A single cell with seven pairs of homologous chromosomes goes through meiosis I. How many cells result at the end of meiosis I? How many chromosomes exist in each cell? Are the chromosomes in each cell duplicated or not? There are two cells, each cell has 7 chromosomes, and the chromosomes are duplicated.
Four cells that originally (prior to meiosis I) had seven pairs of homologous chromosomes go through meiosis II. How many cells result? How many (total) chromosomes exist in each cell? Are the chromosomes in each cell duplicated or not? Since there are four cells going through meiosis II, there are eight cells produced, there are seven chromosomes in each, but the chromosomes are not duplicated.
What are gametes produced in male animals called? What are gametes produced in female animals called? Male gametes are called sperm, while female gametes are called eggs.
How many useful gametes are produced in the meiosis of male animals? What about female animals? Male animals produce four useful gametes with each meiosis, while female animals produce only one.
What is the difference between a polar body and an egg? A polar body is a non-functional female gamete, because it is far too small to function properly. An egg is the one female gamete produced by meiosis that is large enough to function properly.
Which gamete can move on its own? the male gamete? or female gamete? the male gamete can move on its own.
What is the purpose of the lytic pathway? The lytic pathway is the way in which viruses reproduce, killing the cells of its host.
If a virus uses DNA as its genetic material, is it alive? Why or why not? No virus is alive, because a virus cannot reproduce on its own.
A person decides to wait until he contracts measles before getting the vaccine. What is wrong with this strategy? A vaccine is only good if you take it before getting infected, because it is meant to build up the antibodies that you need to fight the virus off before it overwhelms your body.
Created by: abigaileah
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