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Microbiology Chap.17

Diagnosing Infections

Identifying the infectious agent *sample collection *Phenotypic analyses *Genotype analyses *Immunological analyses
What is Phenotypic Analyses? the physical analyse of identifying the infectious agent examples : Morphology, Biochemistry (the makeup), and Chemical analyses Phenotypic Methods have Physiological/Biochemical characteristics
What is the Genotype Analyses? the genetic makeup (DNA) analyse of identifying the infectious agent
Phenotypic Method: Microscopic Morphology *Cell shape and size *Gram stain reaction *Acid fast reaction *Special structures
Phenotypic Method: Macroscopic Morphology *Colony appearance *Speed of growth *Patterns of growth
Phenotypic Method: Chemical Analysis Analyzing the types of specific structural substances that the microorganism contains Examples: Chemical composition of peptides in the cell wall and lipids in membranes
What are the Physiological/Biochemical characteristics? *traditional mainstay of bacterial identification *diagnostic tests for determining the presence of specific enzymes and assessing nutritional and metabolic activities
What are some examples of Physiological/Biochemical characteristics? *Fermentation of sugars *capacity to metabolize complex polymers *production of gas *presence of enzymes *sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs
Genotypic Methods *Primary advantage over phenotypic methods --actual culturing the microorganisms is not always necessary *Increasingly automated with results obtained very quickly
Do you have to culture in the Genotypic Method? No
Immunological Methods *Antibody response to antigen *Blood testing-easier then testing for microbe itself *Lab Kits available for immediate identification of a number of pathogens
First Laboratory Techniques *Direct tests using microscopic, immunologic, or genetic methods along with signs and symptoms *Provide immediate clues
Second Laboratory Techniques *Cultivation, isolation, and identification of pathogen using a wide variety of general and specific tests
Results Laboratory Techniques: Presumptive data place isolate in a preliminary category such as genus *educated guess but can treat because of genus
Results Laboratory Techniques: Confirmatory data provide more definitive evidence of a species *enough evidence for genus and species
Created by: Jervetteg