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Microbiology Chap.16

Disorders in Immunity

Regulation of Immunity The immune system must be carefully controlled
What is Hyposensitivity? it means its little sensitivity; too little expression (get sick)
What is Hypersensitivity? it mean its a lot of activity; too much expression (damage self)
What is Immunopathology? the study of disease states associated with over-activity or under-activity of the immune response
Allergy and Hypersensitivities Type 1: Immediate (IgE and histamine) Type 2: Cytotoxic (IgG and complement) Type 3: Immune Complex (IgG complexes) Type 4: Delayed (Tcells and cytokines)
Type 1: Immediate: Allergy altered relativity or exaggerated immune response manifested by inflammation *Atopy - chronic local allergy (hay, fever, asthma, etc.) *Anaphylaxis- Systemic, sometimes fatal reaction
Type 1: Immediate: Hypersensitivity sometimes used interchangeably with allergy, but some consider this to be delayed reaction
Type 1: Immediate: Allergens the antigen to which allergic individuals are sensitive
Nature of Allergens: Inhalants Airbone environmental allergens example: Pollen Dust Mold spores Dander Animal hair Insect parts Formalin Drugs
Nature of Allergens: Ingestants Allergens that enter by mouth example: Food (milk, peanuts, wheat, shellfish, soybeans, nuts, eggs, fruits) Food additives Drugs (aspirin, penicillin)
Nature of Allergens: Injectant allergies side effect of drugs or other substances used in diagnosing, treating, or preventing disease; naturally through venom from stings Examples: Hymenopteran venom (bee, wasp) Drugs Vaccines Serum Enzymes Hormones
Nature of Allergens: Contactants Allergens that enter through the skin Example: Drugs Cosmetics Heavy metals Detergents Formalin Latex Glue Solvents Dyes
Cytokines chemical produced by mast cells and basophilis
What is a Mast Cell? A nonmotile connective tissue cell implanted along capillaries, especially in the lungs, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract. Like a basophil, its granules store mediators of allergy.
What is a basophils? A motile polymorphonuclear leukocyte that binds IgE. The basophilic cytoplasmic granules contain mediators of anaphylaxis and atopy.
Cytokines: Histamine *Stimulates smooth muscle, glands, and eosinophils *Responsible for wheal and flare reaction (hives), pruritus (itchiness), and headache
Cytokines: Serotonin *Effects appear to complement those of histamine
Cytokines: Leukotriene *Induces gradual contraction of smooth muscle (headaches)
Histamine, Serotonin, and Leukotriene Are chemicals that get release
Diseases Associated with IgE and Mast- Cell Mediated Allergy Atopic Diseases- Hay fever (allergic rhinitis reaction to pollen or molds), Asthma (severe bronchoconstriction) Atopic Dermatitis- intense itchy inflammatory condition of the skin (eczema) *Food allergy *Drug allergy *Anaphylaxis
Food Allergy Gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain)
Food Allergy Other symptoms eczema, hives, rhinitis (runny nose), and occasionally anaphylaxis
Most common food allergens peanuts, fish, cow's milk, eggs. shellfish, and soybeans
What does classic food hypersensitivity involves? IgE and degranulation of mast cells
Drug Allergy Virtually any tissue can be affected
In Drug Allergy, reactions range from what? mild atopic to fatal anaphylaxis
In the drug allergy the actual allergen what? not the drug itself but a hapten given off when the liver processes the drug
What is Anaphylaxis? Greatly amplified response of chemical mediators
In Anaphylaxis when have death occurred? Within 15 Minutes
What is Curaneous anaphylaxis? wheal and flare inflammatory reaction to a local injection of allergen
What is Systemic anaphylaxis? sudden respiratory and circulatory disruption that can be fatal
Diagnosis of Allergy In vitro methods *measure elevated blood levels of tryptase *differential blood cell count *leukocyte histamine release test- inject and measure level *serological tests that measure levels of IgE to specific antigen
Diagnosis of Allergy skin testing wheal and flare rxsn
Diagnosis of Allergy Treatment *avoid allergen *take drugs that block the actions of lymphocytes, mast cells, or chemical medication *Undergo desensitization therapy
What does Drugs do to Block Allergy? Block the progress of allergic response between IgE production and symptoms
Drugs to Block Allergy: Corticosteriods inhibit lymphocytes (b-cells and t-cells)
Drugs to Block Allergy: Antihistamines fight against histamines
Drugs to Block Allergy: Asprin prostaglandin inhibition
Drugs to Block Allergy: Cromolyn prevents degranulation of mast cells
Drugs to Block Allergy: Epinephrine opens airways
Drugs to Block Allergy Any drugs that blocks synthesis of leukotrienes and inactive IgE's
Type 2 Hypersensitivities *Reactions that lyse foreign cells *Complex group of syndromes that involve complement- assisted lysis of cells by IgG and IgM directed against those cells surface antigens *Includes transfusion reactions and some type of autoimmunities
Basis of Human ABO Antigens and Blood Types *ABO blood groups *ABO antigen markers on RBCs are genetically determined ad composed of glycoproteins *Result in 4 blood types
What are the for blood types? Type A Type B Type AB Type O
Immunodeficiency Disease Hyposensitivity of the immune system diease
How can you get Immunodeficiency Disease? Congenital (at birth) and usually stemming from genetic errors Secondary diseases: acquired after birth and caused by natural or artificial agents
Deficiencies in B-Cells (AB) usually appears as an abnormality in immunoglobulin expression
Deficiencies in B-Cells: Agammaglobulinemia rare condition of the absence of gamma globulin
Symptoms of Agammaglobulinemia recurrent, serious bacterial infections
In Agammaglobulinemia what deficiency is most prevalent? IgA
Deficiencies in T-Cells (CMI) result in a broad spectrum of disease
when is Deficiencies in B-Cells most severe? When involve the congenital absence or immaturity of the thymus gland
Examples of Deficiencies in B-Cells *DiGeorge syndrome (boy in a "bubble") *defect in thymus *t-cells do not mature *cellular defenses are diminished *Highly susceptible to viral infections
What is SCIDs? Severe combinded (B-cells and T-cells) immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) Some due to complete absence of lymphocyte stem cell
How is Secondary Immunodeficiency Diseases caused? caused by infection, organ disease, chemotherapy, and radiation
What does Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to? Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Created by: Jervetteg
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