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Animalia

Animal Kingdom

QuestionAnswer
What are some characteristics for an Animalia? -Multicellular -Eukaryotic with no cell walls -Heterotrophs (consumers)
Ectoderm A layer of cells on the outer surface of the gastrula (top); skin and tissue
Mesoderm Made up of two layers of cells lying between the ectoderm and endodem (Middle layer); muscles, reproductive organs, and circulatory vessels
Endoderm A layer of cells lining the inner surface of the gastrula (bottom); digestive tract
Protostomes Animals that develop a mouth from gastrula space
Duterostomes Animals that develop an anus from gastrula space
Asymmetrical Irregular in shape
Symmetrical Regular in shape
Radial symmetry Can be divided along any plane into equal halves
Bilateral Symmetry Can be divided only down it's length in half, creating a mirror image of each side
Acoelomates Animals have three cell layers with a digestive tract but no body cavities
Pseudocoelomates Animals with a fluid-filled body cavity partly liked with mesoderm
Coelomates Animals with a body cavity completely surrounded by mesoderm
What are the 7 essential functions in animals? The 7 functions are feeding, respiration, circulation, excretion, response, movement, and reproduction
What are the organization levels? Cells, tissue, organs, and organ system
Exoskeleton A hard, waxy coating on the outside of the body to protect the internal organs
Endoskeleton A support framework within the body to protect the organs
Bony skeleton Skeleton consisting of bone
Hydroskeleton A fluid-filed cavity, the coelom, surrounded by muscles
Invertebrates Animals lacking a backbone
Vertebrates Animals with a backbone
What are the 5 subphylum vertebrata classes? -Fish -Amphibians -Reptiles -Birds -Mammals
Where did the vertebrate jaw of a fish evolve from? From the skeletal supports of pharyngeal slits
Bony fishes Developed paired pelvic and pectoral fins attached to the pelvic girdles of cartilage or bone
Where did tetradpods evolve from? They evolved from specialized fishes that inhabited in shallow water
Tetrapod Developed lobed walking fins and breathed air by gulping out of the water (were amphibians)
Amphibians Need to return to the water to lay eggs and for development of larvae
Amniotes Includes reptiles, mammals, and birds. Evolution of their egg expanded the success of vertebrates on land
Testudines Turtles - some species return to the water and all lay their eggs on land
Sphenodontia Tuataras
Squamata Lizards and snakes
Crocodilia Crocodiles and alligators
What did birds start out as? Birds began as feathered reptiles, then they evolved to fly
Endothermic Use metabolic energy to generate heat
Wings Flight enhanced the ability to hunt and savage, escape predators, and move with changing seasons
What does hair and subcutaneous fat do? Help retain metabolic heat
Earliest mammals Evolved from reptiles about 220 million years ago
Monotremes Lay eggs and produce milk (no nipples)
Marsupials Born early in embryonic development, climb to mother's pouch and attach to a nipple
Vertebrate brain High degree of cephalization
Vertebrate movement Have a backbone and two pairs of limbs that are attached to a basic supporting structure by limb girdles
Carnivores Short digestive tracts with special enzymes that break down meat
Herbivores Long intestines and stomachs with bacteria that break down cellulose
Single-loop circulatory system Blood travels from the heart to the gills to the body and back to the heart
Double-loop circulatory system -Heart to lungs -Heart to body
Vertebrate excretion -Excretory system eliminate nitrogenous wastes and regulate the amount of water in the body -Most rely on kidneys for excretion -Nitrogenous wastes are first produced in the form of ammonia
Vertebrate respiration Aquatic vertebrates - use gills for respiration Terrestrial Vertebrate - Use lungs to breathe
Created by: kieren1