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Spirochetes

QuestionAnswer
Spirochetes Long. slender helical gram-negative rods. Motility by Fibrils
Morphology of Spirochetes Borrelia: thicker with loose coils. Leptospira: hooked ends. Treponema: slender with tight coils.
Spirochetes Stains Silver for all. Giemsa only for Borrelia. Observed with darkfield for phase-contrast microscopy.
TREPONEMA PALLIDUM causative agent for Syphilis
T.pallidum Transmission moves through viscous medium (mucus) with corkscrew motion. Acquired by sex. Through blood and transplacental (can cause abortion or still birth)
Three stages of syphilis: Chronic disease (slow). Primary: chancre (ulcer). Secondary- fever, weight loss, malaise, rash. Tertiary: hypersensitivity reaction. tissue-destructive phase - effects heart, CNS, and eyes.
Lab Diagnosis of T.pallidum Cannot be cultured in lab. Rabbit inoculation. Dark-field examination. Serology.
nontreponemal tests VDRL -Venereal Disease Research Lab test. RPR - rapid plasma reagin test: screening test
Specific treponemal tests FTA-ABS, fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test. TP-PA, T.pallidum particle agglutination test.
Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) flocculation serologic test in which soluble antigen particles are coalesced to form larger particles that are visible as clumps when they are aggregated by antibody. Cannot be used to diagnose but can be used for monitoring.
Wassermann test A complement fixation test used to diagnose syphilis
VDRL only use CSF. Microflocculation test.Uses antigen that contain cardiolipin, lecithin, and cholesterol
FTA-ABS (fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption) Test specific treponemal serologic test - whole treponemes fixed to a slide with fluorescein - conjugated anithuman antibody reagent to detect specific antitreponemal antibodies. Positive for life.
Drug of choice for Syphilis Penicillin G
B.burgdorferi Cause Lyme disease. transmitted by hard ticks. Serology used to diagnose. A bulls-eye rash will occur (erythema migrans). Disseminated into blood - cold symptoms. Chronic: arthritis.
Borrelia recurrentis epidemic relapsing fever. transmitted by body lice. Can alter proteins on it's surface. Diagnosis through Giemsa or silver stain or dark field microscopy.
Vincent’s disease destructive lesion of the gums also known as acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. Causative organisms: Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Borrelia, and Treponema spp
Created by: Mirielles
 

 



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