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Nucleic Acid set 4

Nucleic Acid Module set 4

QuestionAnswer
Maturation of pre-RNA molecules is RNA processing
RNA processing occurs in the nucleus
Cap (7-methylguanosine) and tail (poly A 150-250 adenylated) are added in RNA processing
Introns(intervening nucleotudes) spliced out by splicesome- (snRNPs-short nucleotide ribonucleoprotein complex) and exons (expressed nucleotides) come together in RNA processing
The Finished product of RNA processing is a mature RNA molecule that leaves the nucleus to the cytoplasm
Carries the message for a specific protein,Made up of 500 to 1000 nucleotides long,Made up of codons (sequence of three bases:AUG - methionine),Each codon, is specific for an amino acid mRNA
Made up of rRNA is 100 to 3000 nucleotides long,Important structural component of a ribosome,Associates with proteins to form ribosomes rRNA
With proteins, forms complexes that are used in RNA processing in eukaryotes (Not found in prokaryotes) small nuclear RNA
Function as post-transcriptional regulators that bind to mRNA, silencing it micro RNA
Like miRNA interferes with gene expression by binding to the mRNA transcripts, facilitating their degradation small interfering RNA
mRNA used to make polypeptide chain (protein) in translation
Made up of 75 to 80 nucleotides long and Picks up the appropriate amino acid floating in the cytoplasm (amino acid activating enzyme tRNA
Transports amino acids to the mRNA, Have anticodons that are complementary to mRNA codons, Recognizes the appropriate codons on the mRNA and bonds to them with H-bonds tRNA
Are the three parts of translation initiation, elongation, and termination
Creation of genetic variation Gene Transfer
How does bacteria produce genetic diversity? Genetic exchanges and Mutations
Three methods of genetic exchange in bacteria are Transformation, Conjugation, and Transduction
In transformation,Bacteria can pick up and incorporate DNA left behind by cells that have _____ (can be from the same or different species) died
Results in new genes being acquired;Example: Can result in acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes transformation
Extensively used in the lab for recombinant DNA technology transformation
is a process in which DNA is transferred from bacterial donor, F+ cell to a recipient, F- cell by direct contact conjugation
The transfer is mediated by a tube-like structure called a ____, formed between the cells, through which the plasmid DNA passes pilus
Once in contact, conjugation, DNA transfer is ______. The lagging strand template peels away… and is transferred to the recipient unidirectional
The ______ template is replicated in the donor while the lagging strand template is replicated in the recipient… so that both cells wind up with the plasmid leading strand
Cells with the F plasmid integrated into the bacterial chromosome are known as high frequency recombination cells
When an Hfr cell undergoes conjugation, the process of transfer of the _____ is initiated in the same manner as in an F+ cell F factor
However, because the F factor is part of the bacterial chromosome, transfer from an Hfr cell also includes DNA from the chromosome
Transfer of genetic material between bacteria cells via virus transduction
Bacterial chromosome degraded by viral enzymes
Pieces of bacterial DNA may be mistakenly packaged in a new virus instead of viral DNA
Created by: kprout