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Biology chapt 44

Biology Chapter 44

TermDefinition
ecology Study of the interactions of organisms with other organisms and with the physical and chemical environment
habitat Place where an organism lives and is able to survive and reproduce.
population Group of organisms of the same species occupying a certain area and sharing a common gene pool.
community Assemblage of species interacting with one another within the same environment.
ecosystem Biological community together with the associated abiotic environment; characterized by a flow of energy and a cycling of inorganic nutrients.
biosphere Zone of air, land, and water at the surface of the Earth in which living organisms are found.
demography Properties of the rate of growth and the age structure of populations.
population density The number of individuals per unit area or volume living in a particular habitat.
population distribution The pattern of dispersal of individuals living within a certain area.
resource Abiotic and biotic components of an environment that support or are needed by living organisms.
limiting factor Resource or environmental condition that restricts the abundance and distribution of an organism.
rate of natural increase (r) Growth rate dependent on the number of individuals that are born each year and the number of individuals that die each year.
biotic potential Maximum population growth rate under ideal conditions.
cohort Group of individuals having a statistical factor in common, such as year of birth, in a population study.
survivorship Probability of newborn individuals of a cohort surviving to particular ages.
age structure diagram In demographics, a display of the age groups of a population; a growing population has a pyramid-shaped diagram.
semelparity Condition of having a single reproductive effort in a lifetime.
iteroparity Repeated production of offspring at intervals throughout the life cycle of an organism.
exponential growth Growth, particularly of a population, in which the increase occurs in the same manner as compound interest.
logistic growth Population increase that results in an S-shaped curve; growth is slow at first, steepens, and then levels off due to environmental resistance.
carrying capacity (K) Largest number of organisms of a particular species that can be maintained indefinitely by a given environment.
density-independent factor Abiotic factor, such as fire or flood, that affects population size independent of the population’s density.
density-dependent factor Biotic factor, such as disease or competition, that affects population size in a direct relationship to the population’s density.
competition Results when members of a species attempt to use a resource that is in limited supply.
predation Interaction in which one organism (the predator) uses another (the prey) as a food source.
r-selection favors r-strategists, which tend to be small individuals that mature early and have a short lifespan.
K-selection Favorable life-history strategy under stable environmental conditions characterized by the production of a few offspring with much attention given to offspring survival.
Created by: Haleyannestes